Saturday, 13 November 2010

Asian Christian Theologies, ed. John C. England et al

England, John C., Jose Kuttianimattathil, John M. Prior, Lily A. Quintos, David Suh Kwang-sun, Janice Wikeri, ed. Asian Christian Theologies: A Research Guide to Authors, Movements, Sources. Vol. 1: Asia Region 7th-20th centuries; South Asia; Austral Asia. Delhi: ISPCK / Claretian Publishers; Maryknoll: Orbis, 2002. 220-1: Pierre Johanns, sj (1882-1955).
This is a precious resource, as far as a bibliography of Indian Christian Writings is concerned.
It is, of course, of a far larger scope than "Indian Christian Writings." However, its extension is also its limitation. It is not able to cover the whole area of Indian Christian Writings. 
Some glaring omissions: 
Thomas Stephens is mentioned, but in passing. 
Except for Pierre Johanns, none of the other members of the Calcutta School of Indology find mention. 
There is not a single mention of the work of Richard De Smet. 
Much work to be done, therefore, in producing a proper bibliography of Indian Christian Writings. 
Still, the resources mentioned will be helpful.

Monday, 8 November 2010

Jacome Gonsalves (1676-1742)

Born and baptized on 8 June 1676 in the parish church of Our Lady of Grace, Chorao, Goa. Eldest son of Thomas Gonsalves and Mariana de Abreu, living in the parish of Our Lady of Pity (Piedade), Divar, Goa. His family had been Christians for 2 or 3 generations, being among the first converts at the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa.
Gonsalves studied at the Jesuit College of Goa. He enrolled in the University of Goa [probably the Collegio Sao Paolo], and obtained the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 1696 he began theological studies at the Academy of St Thomas Aquinas in Goa, where he also held the post of organist. This seems to have led him to develop a taste for poetry, prose and music.
He decided to enter the Oratorian Congregation of Goa. He was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the University of St Paul's in Goa [probably the Collegio Sao Paolo]. He took up his post in January 1705, but relinquished it the same year to go to Sri Lanka.
He left Goa on 9 May 1705 and reached Sri Lanka on 30 August 1705, arriving at Talaimannar. At the time, he knew Konkani, Portuguese, Latin and Spanish. During the long journey he studied Tamil. He mastered this language during his first assignment on the islands of Mannar, Arippu, Musali and other places in the Munnar district. He also learnt Dutch.
Fr Jose Vaz sent him to Kandy to learn Sinhala. Fr Gonsalves studied with the Buddhist monks at the Malwatta Chapter, known for their high and elegant Sinhala.
He wrote many of his works at Bolawatta, near Negombo. Since there was no printing press, he employed 12 Sinhala clerks to copy his works.
He is called the Father of Sinhala Catholic literature.
He died on 17 July 1742.

Primary bibliography
  • Deva Veda Puranaya. [or: Deva Arulveda Puranam.] Part I: Purantima Kandam, pp. 197. Part II: Paccima Kandam, pp. 130. [Compendium of the Bible in 2 parts. 400 printed pages. Undoubtedly influenced by Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana. The description of the Garden of Eden includes local trees: jackfruit, sugar cane, king coconut, timbiri, sandalwood, blue lotus.] Written 1725. 1886. [Dr. Pieris.]
  • Veda Kavyaya.
  • Suvisesha Viriturai. [Explanation of the Gospels for Sundays.] Written 1728, printed 1848.
  • Viyakula Pirasangam. [Sermons on the Passion.] Written 1730, printed 1844. Nine sermons on the passion; the most popular of Fr Gonsalves' works. Catholics in Ceylon still use them during passion week or at Passion plays.] [Dr. Pieris.] 
  • Gnana Unartchy. [Spiritual Exhortation.] Written 1734, printed 1844. 14 exhortations dealing with the soul, the end of man, the malice of sin, vanity of life, death, judgment, hell and heaven. [Dr Pieris.]
  • Sukirta Tarpanam. [Mirror of Virtues.] Written 1735, printed 1914. 15 chapters, meant to lead the repentant soul in the path of virtue. [Dr Pieris.]
  • Sattiya Vedagama Sanshpam. [Summary of Biblical History.] Written 1736, printed Madras, 1875. A summary of the Deva Arulveda Puranam divided into 8 eras or Yugams, the last yugam being that of Christ. 
  • Trilingual dictionary. [Portuguese, Tamil, Sinhala.]
  • Christiyana Alayam. [The Christian Treasure House.] MS, 1725 [ACT 1:74]. Possibly the oldest prayer book in Tamil now extant. Apart from the prayers, it contains a short Catechism of Christian Doctrine and a few meditations. [Dr. Pieris]
  • Matara Pratyaksaya. [Enlightenment of the kingdom of the mature.] Octavo, 1733.

Secondary bibliography
  • Fernandopulle, Anthony. Father Jacome Gonsalves: Sinhala Christian Literary Hero: A Study of the Sinhala Literary Works of Fr Jacome Gonsalves (1676-1742). Colombo: St Peter's College, 2000.
  • Perera, S.G. The Life of Fr Jacome Gonsalves. 1945. 
  • Boudens, R. The Catholic Church in Ceylon under Dutch Rule. Rome, 1957.
  • Peter, W.L.A. Don. Historical Gleanings. Colombo, n.p., 1992.
  • Peter, W.L.A. Don. Star in the East. 1995. 
  • Pieris, Edmund. Sinhalese Christian Literature of the XVII and XVIII centuries. 1943. 
  • Pieris, Edmund. "Tamil Catholic Literature in Ceylon." Tamil Culture, 2:237ff.
  • Perniola, V. The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Dutch Period. 2 vols. Dehiwala: Tissara Prakasakayo, 1983.
  • Peter, W.L.A. Don. Studies in Ceylon Church History. Colombo: Catholic Press, 1963.
  • Goonetileke, H.A.I. A Bibliography of Ceylon. 5 vols. Zug: Switzerland, 1975-1983.
  • Perera, S.G., ed. The Oratorian Mission in Ceylon: Historical Documents relating to the Life and Labours of the Venerable Father Joseph Vaz, his Companions and Successors. Colombo: Caxton Printing Works, 1936.
  • Perniola, V., tr. The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka. The Portuguese Period: Original Documents. Ceylon Historical Journal monograph series 15-16. Dehiwala: Tissara Prakasakayo 1989-(1991). [1:77.]
  • Wickremasinghe, Martin. Landmarks of Sinhalese Literature. Colombo: Gunasena, 1948/1963.

Sunday, 31 October 2010

More copies of the Khristapurana

The last week has been particularly fertile in terms of unearthing traces of copies of Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana.

Fr Angelo Monteiro who teaches at the Rachol Seminary, Goa, told me that the current Rector of the Seminary is in contact with two people who have manuscripts of the Khristapurana, one in Mapusa, the other in Arambol. Both are, for the present, unwilling to part with or even allow copies to be made of their manuscripts. [News as of 31 January 2011: According to Fr Michael Mascarenhas, SDB, the Arambol copy has been acquired by Fr Pratap Naik, SJ, Director of the Thomas Stephens Koknni Kendr, Alto Porvorim, Goa.]

Fr Michael Mascarenhas pointed out to me yesterday that Jacome Goncalves, famous follower of Jose Vaz, had carried the Khristapurana to Sri Lanka, and had made a translation of it into Singalese, under the title Deva Veda Puranaya. Some indications are in Fr Michael's book, Storm and Tempest: Life of Jose Vaz. So Sri Lanka becomes another field of search!

"The term [purana] was also used by Thomas Stephen [sic], a missionary from England, in the title of his book Christ Purana, written in Konkani language. This important work consists [sic] 10,962 verses, and undoubtedly it influenced Fr Gonsalves' Deva Veda Puranaya." (A. Fernandopulle, Father Jacome Gonsalves: Sinhala Christian Literary Hero [Colombo: St Peter's College, 2000] 14)

Wednesday, 25 August 2010

Another copy of the Khristapurana: Collection of Bhaugun Kamat Vagh

One more copy of the Khristapurana, indicated in Tadkodkar's book:

[Copy, manuscript.] Collection of Bhaugun Kamat Vagh. Copy in Goa University Library: see Bibliography of Dr Pandurang Sakharam Shennavi Pissurlencar Collections, vol. II (of 3 vols.), Goa University Series No. 3, ed. B.S. Shastry and V.R. Navelkar. Cited in S.M. Tadkodkar, Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika During the 17th Century (Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corporation, 2010) 118, note 8. Tadkodkar notes that this copy is from the 19th century, and that sometimes the strophe numbers do not coincide with any of the strophe numbers in other copies mentioned by him (i.e. mainly the Central Library Panjim copy). 

Tuesday, 24 August 2010

Tadkodkar's Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika: a first look

Finally managed to get a copy of S.M. Tadkodkar's Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika During the 17th Century.

It contains: the texts of the 3 Paixao's / Vilapika's from the Central Library MS of Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana at Panjim, in Roman script; transliterations by T into Devanagari script; and plenty of front and back matter.

Appendix G is entitle "Texts of the Christi Vilapika" in the Table of Contents. This is misleading: it is really an Index to the Texts of the Christi Vilapika.

I wish a good copy editor had been employed!

The system of transliteration has to be checked.

The printing and the fonts used: again, unfortunately, not the best.

But a great work, a great achievement.

Not much about the authorship of the 3 texts; or perhaps it is there, but there are no clear subtitles to the effect.

The Khristapurana was printed in 1616 and 1649 at Rachol, and in 1654 at the College of St Paul, according to Schurhammer, quoted by Priolkar in The Printing Press in India, quoted at T 112.

Sunday, 4 July 2010

More on Thomas Stephens

Searched for Thomas Stephens in one of the Waterloo University libraries, and found a tiny note in a French encyclopedia, whose name I forget now. The note dealt solely with Stephens' letter to his father regarding his voyage to India.

In the New York Public Library, instead, I browsed through several collections regarding rare and ancient books and manuscripts - in the UK, in Europe, in the US - but not in Portugal, unfortunately. Of course, most of the time only the collections are listed, and not the holdings in each collection. And then there is the problem of the name: the variations of Stephens' name are enormous. I found, in Graesse, the following: Thomas Estevano; Thomas Estienne de Buston; Thomas Estienne de Buten. These were new to me, except for the first.

More interestingly, I discovered a new edition of the Dictionary of National Biography: The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Like the former, the latter also contains an article on Thomas Stephens. But the former was by A.F. Pollard, with its famous mention of having seen the three printed editions in the Archivo Universal in Braga, Portugal. The latter instead contains a new piece on TS, this time by our very own Charles Borges, formerly SJ, and now teaching at ... some Jesuit University in the US. Not much on the Khristapurana, though.

Nelson Falcao's publication of this doctoral dissertation has, instead, found its way into the NY Public Library.

The facilities that these people have: enviable!

I could spend weeks there.

Tuesday, 25 May 2010

Thomas Stephens and comparative linguistics

This is from Vincent W.J. van Gerwen Oei:

Personally I'm intruiged by the fact that Thomas Stephens was the first to recognize the relation between Indian and European languages, and thus a founder of comparative historical linguistics as a science. 

My transcription from the pertinent sentences on the last page:
Linguae harum regionum sunt et multae. Pronunciationem habent non invenustam, et compositionem latinae graecaeque similem: phrases et constructiones plane mirabiles. Literae syllabarum vim habent, quae toties variatur quoties consonantis cum vocalibus, vel mutae cum liquidis combinari possunt. (T. Stephens, letter to his brother, 1583)

Wednesday, 19 May 2010

Hubert Olympus Mascarenhas

One small mystery is solved: the H.O. Mascaren, author in 1951 of The Quintessence of Hinduism, mentioned in De Smet's "Sankara Vedanta and Christian Theology" turns out to be H.O. Mascarenhas, and there is quite a bit of information about this Mascarenhas on the net.

The clue turned out to be "H.O. Mascarenhas" listed by De Smet among specialists to whom he sent copies of his doctoral dissertation in 1954: see his "From the Vedas to Radhakrishnan" 1994 1.

Strangely, I think it is this same Mascarenhas who is mentioned by Jose Cosme Costa as proposing theories of pre-Portuguese christianity in Goa.

Hubert Olympus Mascarenhas was a "fiery Indian nationalist" and a priest, besides holding a doctorate and being recognized as an Orientalist, according to what I have gleaned from the net.

  • The Quintessence of Hinduism: The KEY to Indian Culture and Philosophy. Bombay: Fr Bento D'Souza, St Sebastian's Goan High School, Thakurdwar, Bombay 2.
  • Konkannachem Apostolik Kristanvponn. Rendered into Kannada script by A.A. Saldanha. Dabul, Bombay: Betal Prakashan, 1960.
  • Interview with the Editor of New Leader, reprinted in the Silver Jubilee Souvenir of the Archdiocese of Tellicherry, 1970, see

  • De Smet, Richard. "Sankara Vedanta and Christian Theology." Review of Darshana 1/1 (1980) 33-48 = Understanding Sankara: Essays by Richard De Smet (New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, forthcoming) ch. 27.
  • De Smet, Richard. "From the Vedas to Radhakrishnan." 1994. 
  • Costa, Cosme Jose. Apostolic Christianity in Goa and in the West Coast. Pilar, Goa: Xavierian Publication Society, 2009.
  • Gispert-Sauch, George. "Advaita as a Unique Indian Contribution to the Articulation of a Christian Vision of Reality." Relating We Journey: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. [Festschrift for Dominic Veliath.] Ed. Jose Kuttianimattathil. Bangalore: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2012. 161-175, at 166-170: Advaita Re-discovered: Hubert Olympus Mascarenhas.

General bibliography

National Library (India). A Bibliography of Indology. Calcutta 1960. Z3201.C3.
See as of 19 May 2010.

Wednesday, 12 May 2010

S.M. Tadkodkar, Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika during the 17th Century

An extraordinary book: S.M. Tadkodkar, Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika during the 17th Century. Delhi: B.R. Publications, 2009.

Tadkodkar, who is HoD of Marathi at the Goa University, proposes that 2 of the 3 Paixao de Christo found at the end of the MS of the Khristapurana preserved in the State Central Library, Panjim, Goa, were written by Thomas Stephens himself.

The book - which is practically sold out - contains transcriptions of many other parts of the MS: the Censures and Licences, for example.

Tadkodkar teaches a course called "Christian Marathi Literature" every year to his students. Every year, he told me, he has problems from his students: Sir, why do we have to study this stuff? And every year, by the end of the course, they say: This is the best course we have attended.

The Professor is full of admiration for Thomas Stephens. His writings are able to move people even today, reaching out across temporal, religious and community barriers to touch the hearts of those who read and hear.

Wednesday, 21 April 2010

Review of Falcao's Khristapurana

My review of Falcao's edition of the Khristapurana has just appeared under the title, “Review Article: A Significant Publication.” [Review of Phādara Thomasa Stīphanskṛta Khristapurāṇa, ed. and tr. Nelson Falcao (Bangalore: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2009.] Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 74/4 (April 2010) 307-314.

VJTR has a circulation of some 4000; that is very good publicity indeed!

Friday, 16 April 2010

Swami Amalananda, SJ (1919-2008)

A piece of information sent me by Mr Maurice M. D'Mello, which he accessed from an Indian Jesuit website:

Swami Amalananda was born Anthony Prabhu in Belmannu, in South Karnataka on February 2, 1919. During High School, in history, he read about Ignatius of Loyola and developed an admiration for him.

His main work has been his Khrista Purana, somewhat on the lines of Fr. Thomas Stephens’ book of the same name. Unfortunately, his poor health compelled him to leave this work incomplete. He passed away on August 29, 2008 the feast of St. John the Baptist.

So that makes one more Khrista Purana!

For more information, see


Bhakti Marg
Kaavya Gaanadi Divya Bali Vidhi
Gaana Katha - Bhakti Sudhaa (a prose life of St. John the Baptist).
Translation of all 150 psalms of Scripture (first draft).
Khrista Purana

Wednesday, 7 April 2010

Richard V. De Smet: dissertation

Going through some correspondence of Richard De Smet that was recently discovered among the papers of Paul Kehres, SJ, I came across a letter from George McLean, speaking about the publication of De Smet's dissertation.

Fortunately there was an email, and I tried my luck. To my great surprise and pleasure Prof. McLean responded almost immediately to my queries. This is what he wrote (28 Feb 2010):

The project of the dissertation is something like this: .
a. I edited the work when in India in the mid 70s.
b. Brad reconstituted the work (ms was unclear) and sent it to Notre Dame Univ. Press.
c. The Press held up on publication for absence of agreement by Richard to publication of the edited version.
d. I found the from Richard (one of his last two letters the night before his final operation) telling me to go ahead with the publication, which I am ready to do.
e. I thought that Brad was getting a release from NDU press for this publlication, but have been distracted and have not followed up.
f. I will write to Brad about this and look forward to making this work available.

Brad Malkovsky had earlier written to me (19 August 2009):

As to the original De Smet thesis, I put a lot of time and effort into it many years ago, trying to get it ready for publication. I used a copy of the original manuscript, which was riddled with problems involving English, Sanskrit, organization, incomplete source citations and incomplete bibliographical entries. I tried tidying it up as best I could. Along with that manuscript I worked with another, one that was alleged to be an improved later version by De Smet. It turned out it wasn't. I had wanted to publish De Smet's work, synthesizing the two versions. When I learned the second version was spurious I gave up the project out of frustration.

In retrospect I no longer feel that De Smet's dissertation is worth publishing, though it was his desire to do so, even at the end of his life. Proving that Shankara was a theologian rather than a philosopher is already well established (though still not usually accepted by Hindu Advaitins) by other scholars, including Frank Clooney, SJ of Harvard. Also many of the sources De Smet thought were from Shankara are no longer counted as genuine today, e.g. the Vivekacudamani. So the work is very much out of date and no longer eye-opening in its insights. What is more important is to get De Smet's essays published, especially those from the last twenty years of his life. They are far superior to his dissertation in terms of precision and insight.

Richard V. De Smet: missing items

Daniel De Smet, nephew of Fr Richard De Smet, got in touch with me yesterday, thanking me for the copy of Brahman and Person that I had sent him, and asking me to send him, once again, a list of items he could look for. Going through one of his earlier mails to me, I found, to my great surprise, that he had listed the following items as being in his possession:
3. no date but written for St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India
a survey of Four Centuries
40 pages +notes

4. a small pack from p 33 till 65 + notes
starting with
point 6. The Creative Assimilationists
7. The Apophatists
8. Christians in Dialogue with Advaitins

5. "Trajectory of My Dialogical Activity"

This is amazing! I think we have managed to trace at least part, if not the whole, of the missing MS about the Jesuit Contribution to Vedanta. Or perhaps the Christian Encounter with Vedanta! I am excited. I hope Daniel manages to send me copies.

See the following from De Smet, "Samkara Vedanta and Christian Theology," Review of Darshana 1 (1980) 33:
This survey of the attitudes adopted by Christian scholars towards Śāṅkara Vedānta in this century is summed up from a monograph (now in the press) in which I have studied the four centuries of encounters between Christians and Vedānta beginning with Robert de Nobili (1577-1656).

I recall distinctly De Smet telling me that he was working on the text while in Rome in 1990. He said he had the basic matter, but was enriching it with material found in the Jesuit Archives. He was staying that year first in the Jesuit Casa degli Scrittori near their Generalate, and then in the Civilta' Cattolica house near the Borghese Gardens. Perhaps it in that year that he left his manuscript with his nephew.

Sunday, 7 March 2010

Release of 'Brahman and Person' in Pune

I was happy that Brahman and Person: Essays by Richard De Smet, ed. Ivo Coelho (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2010) was released at De Nobili College, Pune, on 2 March 2010, which happened to be, fittingly, the 13th death anniversary of Fr De Smet.

The book was released at the hands of Dr Noel Sheth, SJ, former President of Jnana Deepa Vidyapeeth, Pune, and well-known Indologist. Dr Sheth paid homage to Fr De Smet in glowing terms. Dr John Vattanky said a few words also about the person of De Smet and about the book.

The book contains 14 essays by De Smet spanning a period from 1957 to 1996, a veritable campaign on the notion of person. (One essay could not be traced: "Contemporary Philosophical Anthropology," New Consciousness 1973.) De Smet's concern was (1) to trace out the history of the term 'person' as it emerged in the West; (2) to use this history to highlight the inappropriateness of translating nirguna Brahman as impersonal Absolute; (3) to raise a notion of person from within Indian thought, drawing upon both orthodox and heterodox streams, not discounting also the contribution of great contemporary Indian thinkers.

De Smet's thesis is that the term 'person' was fleshed out in the Christian effort to speak precisely about God, and that this meaning was lost in the modern age of the West, so much so that an obscure German philosopher called F.H. Jacobi could decide that 'person' could be applied only to beings having qualities, and therefore only to finite beings. This choice influenced a certain number of German philosophers, and also, eventually, the great, mostly German, translators of the Sanskrit works, who rendered saguna as personal and nirguna as impersonal. This fateful choice led to the still current situation in India, where the para Brahman is regarded as impersonal, and, conversely, the Christian God is regarded (with condescension) as personal and therefore as somehow anthropomorphic.

This thesis, presented several times at various meetings of Indian philosophers and Indologists, led to the declaration by no less a Vedantin than T.M.P. Mahadevan that the Brahman of the Upanisads was nothing if not personal. For person is an analogical term, a term that is capable of being applied not only to human beings but also to the divine Absolute, though of course in a super-eminent way.

The problem is that India does not have a proper and adequate equivalent to the notion of person, especially to that notion worked out by Thomas Aquinas, "a singular subsistent of an intellectual nature," one capable of interpersonal relationships and therefore intrinsically social. Vyakti is rooted in the idea of manifestation and leans towards 'modalism'; purusa really means male human being, and has its own history heavily coloured by Samkhya; jana has no philosophical tradition behind it. In the end, if we go by the article De Smet contributed to the Marathi Encyclopedia of Philosophy, it would seem that he settled for vyakti as best rendering 'person'; the felicity of this choice seems to be borne out by the current usage of vyakti in Marathi and related languages not only as 'individual' but also as 'person.'

The 14 essays that make up Brahman and Person include one translated from the German (earlier published in Kairos), and 7 entries translated from the Marathi Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

This publication is a first step towards making De Smet's rather voluminous output more easily accessible and available, his publications being mostly in the form of articles in a variety of rather inaccessible and mostly Indian journals. That was part of his 'ascetical' option to write for people of other faiths rather than for Christians, and for an Indian public rather than for a Western one.

Hopefully De Smet's Sankara essays, his doctoral dissertation on Sankara, and his notes for students (Guidelines in Indian Philosophy) will be made available in the same way.

Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana: publicity

The Mangalore magazine run by the Catholic Association of South Kanara has kindly published my piece on the Nashik book release of Nelson Falcao's edition and translation of the Khristapurana. I am happy, because I hope this publicity will lead to the discovery / recovery of manuscripts that might be lying around in Mangalore, in the possession of private individuals and families. I am hoping at least to get news about the families of Mr. Jerome A. Saldanha (sub-judge of Alibagh, Bombay Presidency, at turn of the 20th century), Mr Julian Coelho, Fr. S.B.C. Luis, and Messrs. Dunbar Brothers, Parel. These were the people who lent their manuscripts to Prof. Joseph L. Saldanha, whose edition of the Khristapurana was published in Mangalore way back in 1907.

In the meantime, my feature review of Falcao's edition has appeared in Divyadaan: Journal of Philosophy and Education 20/3 (2009), and is due to appear also in Vidyajyoti: Journal of Theological Reflection in March 2010.

Tuesday, 12 January 2010

The Calcutta [Jesuit] School of Indology

In his review of Clooney, Theology after Vedanta, De Smet mentions the following who, presumably, were part of the Calcutta Jesuit School of Indology: W. Wallace, P. Johanns, G. Dandoy, J. Putz, J. Bayart.

John Britto Chethimattam, CMI (1922-2006)

From Joseph Varghese at, as of 12 January 2010. (For information about the life see the above blog.)

I. Books in English

1. Consciousness and Reality: An Indian Approach to Metaphysics, Bangalore: Dharamaram Publications, 1967; London and New York, 1971.
2. Dialogue in Indian Tradition, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1969; Reedited as Patterns of Indian Thought, London: G. Chapman & Maryknoll: Orbis, 1971.
3. A Philosophy in Song Poems (co-authored with A. de Nicholas), Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1971.
4. Unique and Universal: An Introduction to Indian Theology, (Ed), Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1972. (It contains 3 articles of JBC).
5. Images of Man (co-authored with T. M. Thomas), Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1974.
6. Glimpses of Reality: A First Book f Metaphysics, East Orange: Dharmanivas, 1980.
7. Experience and Reality, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1996.
8. We, Christians: A Christian Self-Introduction, (Ed.), Trivandrum: CMI Publications, 1996. (It contains 4 articles of JBC).
9. Towards a Theology of Intercommunion, Rome: CIIS & Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 2001.

II. Books in Malayalam

1. Visuddha Yohannan Berchmans (Life of St. John Bechmans), Thevara, Kerala: 1948.
2. Snehaswarupan (The Image of Love), Mannanam, Kerala: 1950.
3. Oru Vidushakan (The Life of Maxmilian Kolbe), Mannanam, Kerala: 1951.
4. Katholikapravarthanathinoru Mathruka (A Model for Catholic Action), Mannanam, Kerala: 1951.
5. Deivasthitvam (The Existence of God), Mannanam, Kerala: 1957.

III. Chapters or Articles in Books

1. “Theology as Human Interiority: Search for the One Teacher”, in Unique and Universal: Fundamental problems of an Indian Theology, edited by J B Chethimattam, Bangalore: CSWR, 1972, pp. 183-196.
2. “Sankaracharya’s Theological Method” in Unique and Universal: Fundamental problems of an Indian Theology, edited by J B Chethimattam, Bangalore: CSWR 1972, pp. 90-113.
3. “Scope and Function of Theology Today” in Unique and Universal: Fundamental problems of an Indian Theology, edited by J B Chethimattam, Bangalore: CSWR, 1972, pp. 3-12.
4. “Atman and Vishnu: Hindu insights for Inter-faith Dialogue”, in Meeting of Religions: New Orientations and Perspectives, edited by Thomas A. Aykara, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1978, pp. 135-155.
5. “Self and Consciousness in Ramanuja’s Perspective” in Self and Consciousness: Indian Interpretations, edited by Augustine Thottakara, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, pp. 44-60.
6. “The Pre-Aryan Roots of Sankara’s Advaita” in Religious Experience: Its unity and Diversity, edited by Thomas Mampra, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1981, pp. 62-82.
7. “Problems of an Indian Christian Theology: A Critique of Indian Theologizing” in Theologizing in India, edited by M Amaladoss, Bangalore: TPI, 1981, pp. 195-207.
8. “The Sacred Assembly in the Indian Religious Traditions: Society or Community?” in Searching for an Indian Ecclesiology, edited by Gerwin van Leeuwen, Bangalore: ATC, 1984 pp. 60-74.
9. “Towards a World Theology: An Interreligious Approach to Theological Issues” in Religions in Dialogue: East and West Meet, edited by Zacharias P Thundy, Kuncheria Pathil and Frank Podgorski, Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America Inc., 1985, pp. 295-314.
10. “The Universal Sacrificial Ethos and Communicatio in Sacris” in Sharing Worship, edited by Paul Puthanangady, Bangalore: NBCLC, 1988 pp. 173-191.
11. “Theology of Liberation and Liberation of Theology” in Bread and Breath, edited by T K John, Gujarath Sahithya Prakash, 1990, pp. 168-182.
12. “The Biblical world of God and the Signs of the Times” in Emerging India and Word of God, edited by Paul Puthanangady, Bangalore: NBCLC, 1991,pp. 43-60.
13. “Postmodern, Post Scientific Evangelism: The Future of the Christian Mission” in A Missiology for Third Millennium: A Contextualised Mission Theology, edited by Thomas Aykara, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, pp. 84-105.
14. “Indian Spirituality and Liberative Action”, in Towards an Indian Christian Spirituality in a Pluralistic Context edited by Dominic Veliath, Dharmaram Publications, Bangalore 1993 pages 57-89.
15. “My Encounter with Indian Philosophy” in Christian Contribution to Indian Philosophy, edited by Anand Amaladass, Madras: CLS, 1995, pp. 17-37.
16. “Indian Culture and the Christian Civilization” in Church in Context, by edited by Francis Kanichikattil, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1996, pp. 139-152.
17. “The Multi-Culturality of Indian Philosophy”, in Interculturality of Philosophy and Religion, edited by Gregory D’Souza, Bangalore: NBCLC, 1996, pp. 163-181.
18. “Response to Church Journeying with Other Religious Groups”, in The Church in India in Search of a New Identity, edited by Kurian Kunnumpuram and others, Bangalore: NBCLC, 1997, pp. 327 – 329.
19. “Christian Leadership and Inter-religious Apostolate” in Christian Leadership, edited by Antony Kalliath Dharmaram Publications, Bangalore 2001, pages 221-238.
20. “The Postmodern Responses to the Death of Modernity” in Western Encounter with Indian Philosophy, edited by Augustine Thottakara, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 2002, pp. 257-281.
21. “Philosophical Education in the Seminary Curriculum” in Philosophical Education in Indian Seminaries, edited by Augustine Thottakara, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 2003, pp. 11-18.

22. “Change and Continuity in the Renewal of CMI Congregation” in In Search of CMI Charism and Identity. Vol. 1, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 2003, pp. 169-183.
23. “The pastoral and priestly mission of Religious” in CMI Charism on the Path of Growth. Vol 2, published by the Vicar General, Kochi: CMI Generalate, 2006, pp. 123-133.
24. “Articulation of our identity in the constitution of 1984 and its impact on the formation programme” in CMI Charism on the Path of Growth. Vol 2, published by The Vicar General, Kochi: CMI Generalate, 2006, pp.303-319.
25. “Mary and the Meaning of Matter”, in India and the Fullness of Christ, Madras: 1957.
26. “Faith and Life”, in The Art of Living, edited by Prem Nath, Jullundur, 1963.
27. “Place and Role of the Aged in the Hindu Perspective” in Aging, Spiritual Perspective, ed. Ettore DiFilippo, Lakeworth, FL: Sunday Publications, 1982, pp 63- 83.
28.“Liberty of the Person in society”, in The Human Person and Philosophy
in the Contemporary World, Proceedings of the World Union of the Catholic
Philosophical Societies, Cracow, August 1978, ed. J. M. Zycinsdi, Krakow,

IV. Articles in Journals

1. ‘The Vine and the Branches”, Unitas, Mangalore, 1950.
2. “Mystical Experience, the Meeting Point between East and West”, Indian Philosophical Quarterly, (hereafter IPQ) (1959).
3. “The Indian Mind”, Clergy Monthly, 1961.
4. ‘Theology for the Laity”, Clergy Monthly, 1961.
5. “Christian and Vedantic Experience”, Indian Ecclesiastical Studies (hereafter as IES) 1/3 (1962) 221-39 and 2 (1963) 277-89.
6. “Indian Approach to Metaphysics”, IES 2 (1963) 236-54.
7. “The Priestly Life,” Unitas, Mangalore, 1963.
8. “Third Christian Colloquy on Hinduism”, IES, 3, 1964.
9. “Concept of Love in the Christian Tradition,” Bulletin for the Study of Religion and Society, Bangalore, 13, 1964.
10. “St. Teresa and Indian Spirituality,” Eucharist and Priest, Alwaye, 1964.
11. “Scope and Condition of Hindu Christian Dialogue,” Concilium, 3, March 1965, IES, 4,1965; summarized in Catholic Digest, Oct. 1965.
12. “Ananyatva, Hindu and Christian Concept of Incarnation”, The Guardian, Bangalore, March 1965, trans. into German in Stimmen auf Asien, Stuttgart, 1968.
13. “Religious Vocation” In Christo, 1965.
14. “Recent Christian Studies on Hinduism” Examiner, Bombay, Oct. 1967.
15. “Psychology and Personality, the Samkhya View of Philosophy,” IES, 7,1968.
16. “The Church in Ceylon; Impressions from a Short Visit” Examiner, Bombay, Dec. 1968.
17. “An Epistemological Critique of the Knowledge of Christ”, Indian Theological Quarterly, March 1969.
18. “Vatican II and the Church in India,” Logos, Ceylon. March 1969.
19. “Secular Values in the Religion of Guru Nanak”, Wardha Medical College Magazine, 1970.
20. “Indian Interiority and Christian Theology”, Report of the First Christian Colloquy on Hinduism, Bangalore, 1961.
21. “Religious Experience, Christian and Hindu, Report of the Second Christian Colloquy on Hinduism, Bangalore, 1962.
22. “Rasa, the Soul of Indian art”, International Philosophical Quarterly 10, 1970, 44-62.
23. “The Spirit and Orientation of an Indian Theology,” Jeevadhara, 1, (1971), 452-462.
24. “The Problems of Population Exploitation and Traditional Religions” Religion and Society, 19, (1972), 29-34.
25. “Human Suffering and World Regions” Jeevadhara, 2 (1972), 377-86.
26. “Faith and Belief an World Religions”, Jeevadhara, 3 (1973), 412-21.
27. “Image of Man in Religion and Philosophy,” Jeevadhara, 4 (1974), 353-63.
28. “Problems of Formation for Evangelization, A Theological Perspective,” The Living Word, 81 (1975), 76-89.
29. “Symbolism and Cult in World Religions Today” Jeevadhara, 5 (1975), 329-44.
30. “Man’s Dialogical Nature and the Dialogue of Religions,” Journal of Dharma, 1 (1975), 76-89.
31. “Authority in the Hindu Scriptures,” Jeevadhara, 34 (1976), 380-87.
32. “The Process of Decentralization in the Church,” Jeevadhara, 28 (1975), 291-310.
33. “Ecumenism Today”, Jeevadhara, 1 (1971), 463-473.
34. “The Local Church is the Catholic Church”, Jeevadhara, 1 (1971), 333-40.
35. “Intuition and Reason, an Indian Approach”, Journal of Dharma, 1 (1976), 391-402.
36. “Meditation, a Discriminating Realization”, Journal of Dharma, 2 (1977), 164-172.
37. “Man and Feast”, Jeevadhara, 35 (1976), 405-417.
38. The Church as the Communion of Churches, according to the Oriental Fathers”, Jeevadhara, 40 (1977), 358-367.
39. “Theology and Evangelization, Theology for Dialogue and Theology of Dialogue”, Jeevadhara, 41 (1977), 379-396.
40. “Ministries in the Church in the Context of Interreligious Dialogue” (Research and Background Paper presented to the Federation of the Bishops’ Conferences of Asia), Hong Kong, III, 8, 1-11.
41. “Morality Beside and Beyond Religion: An Indian Approach to Morality”, in Ethical Wisdom East and/Or West, Proceedings of ACPA LI, Washington, 1977, pp.87-104.
42. “The Christian Art of India Today” Catholic Near East Magazine, Summer 1978 pp. 8-11.
43. “Religions and Law” Journal of Dharma, 4 (1979), 373-387.
44. “Towards Renewal in Religious Life: Problems and Orientations”, Jeevadhara (1979), pp. 274-284.
45. “Fourteen Years after Vatican II: What Have We Achieved? Jeevadhara (1979) pp. 319-327.
46. “Philosophical Hermeneutics,” Journal of Dharma, 1 (1980), pp. 64-79.
47. “Pneumatology: Oriental v. Western, Horizontal v. Vertical”, Jeevadhara, 58 (1980), 255-268.
48. “Missionary Dimensions of an Indian Theology”, Jeevadhara, (1980), pp 270-282
49.“Four Pattern of Theological Experience”, Jeevadhara, 9 (1979), pp. 277-288.
50.“Meeting and Scope of an Inter-religious Dialogue”, Jeevadhara, 11 (1981),
51.“Religion and Politics: Contrast and Complementarities”, Journal of Dharma, 7
(1982), pp. 5-25.
52. “Yoga and Immortality in Samkhaya – Yoga”, Proceedings of the IASWR Conference 1981, ed. Christopher Chapple, Stony Brook, IASWR 1983, pp. 79-102.
53.“Religious and Pilgrimages”, Jeeevadhara, 12 (1982), pp. 63-83.
54. “Ecclesiology in the Socio Political Context of India”, Jeevadhara, 12 (1982) pp. 278-296.
55. “Reflections on Resurrection, Life and Renewal: Review Article on the book of Varghese Pathikulangara,” Jeevadhara, 12 (1982), pp. 322-332.
56. “Impact of Science on Religion and Theology”, Journal of Dharma, 8 (1983), pp. 5-26.
57. “Towards a World Theology: An Interreligious Approach to Theological Issues,” Jeevadhara, 13(1983), pp.313-335.
58. “Varieties of Orientalism”, Jeevadhara, 13 (1983), 355-362.
59. “The Geek Religious Apophatism”, Journal of Dharma, 6 (1981), 69-82.
60. “Religious and Social Change, Some Basic Patterns”, Journal of Dharma, 9 (1984), pp. 7-23.
61. “Religious Monograms and Mantras”, Journal of Dharma, 9 (1984), pp. 142-149.
62. “World Problems and Emergence of New Inter-Religious Perspective,”
Journal of Dharma, (1985) pp. 90-101.
63. “Context of Theologizing, Indian and Oriental Christian,” Jeevadhara, 89 (1987), pp. 355-383.
64. “The Adventure of Theology today,” Jeevadhara, 101 (1987, pp. 351-376.
65. “Sri Ramakrishna and Holiness,” Prabhudha Bharatha (1986), pp.543-545.
66. “Grace in Christian Religious Tradition,” Journal of Dharma (1987) 330-353.
67. “Theology of Mission today,” Jeevadhara 107 (1988), pp 350-361.
68. “Christian Moral Theology”, Jeevadhara 113 (1989), pp317-332.
69. “Meaning of the Personal,” Jeevadhara 113 (1989), pp341-343.
70. “New Religious Movement and Popular Religiosity,” Jeevadhara, 119 (1990) pp340-364.
71. “Church of St. Thomas in India,” Journal of Dharma (1989), pp. 62-73.
72. “The Christian Hermeneusis and Other Religions,” Jeevadhara 125 (1991) pp339-364.
73. “Towards World Morality,” Journal of Dharma (1991) pp 317-336.
74. “Nature and Scope of Inter-Religious Dialogue Today,” Jeevadhara, 113 (1992) pp 331-355.
75. “The Task of Theological Colleges and Faculties,” Jeevadhara, 136 (1992) pp. 301-308.
76. “Religious Dynamics of Social Harmony in South Asia,” Jeevadhara, 137 (1993), pp 364-378.
77. “Where Does Our Dialogue Go From Here,” Journal of Dharma (1994), pp84-92.
78. “An Inter Religious Approach to Human Salvation,” Jeevadhara, 143 (1994) pp. 345-359.
79. “Philosophical Approach to Ecological Crisis,” Journal of Dharma (1995), pp. 17-25.
80. “Secular Humanism in Catholic Theology,” Journal of Dharma (1995), pp. 380- 393.
81. “Dynamics of Moral Decision Making,” Jeevadhara, 149 (1995), pp. 401-413.
82. “Hundred Years of Hindu-Christian Dialogue,” Prabuddha Bharata, (1995) pp. 393 – 404.
83. “Asian Jesus: The Relevance of Jesus Christ in the Asian World of Religious Pluralism,” Jeevadhara, 160 (1997) pp.299-310.
84. “The Dynamic Task of Theologians Today,” Jeevadhara, 161 (1997), pp. 322-329.
85. “The Christian Approach to Religious Pluralism,” Jeevadhara, 167 (1998) pp.385-403.
86. “Man’s Dialogical Nature and Dialogue of Religions,” Journal of Dharma (1999) pp.358-377.
87. “The Second Millennium of Christianity- its Positive Contribution,” Jeevadhara, 173 (1999) pp. 358-377.
88. “Ethical Challenges to Business Praxis Today,” Jeevadhara, 174 (1999) pp. 454-459.
89. “From Roman Church to Universal Christianity,” Pradhuddha Bharata (2000) pp. 75-82.
90. “Inculturating our Theological Thinking,” Jeevadhara, 179 (2000) pp. 419-443.
91. “Theologizing in a Multi- Religious Context,” Third Millennium 4, Oct- Dec
(2000), pp. 34-47
92. “Religion and Nationalism,” Jeevadhara, 184&185 (2001), pp.279-290.
93. “Religion the Cutting Edge of Culture,” Jeevadhara, 184&185 (2001), pp. 349-365.
94. “Constructing an Indian Ecclesiology,” Third Millennium, 5 Jan-Mar (2002)
95. “Christian Leadership and Inter-Religious Apostolate,” Journal of Dharma (2002) pp. 52-67.
96. “History and Religion,” Jeevadhara, 191 (2002), pp. 349-362.
97. “One-Faith; Many Religions: Implications of Religious Pluralism,” Jeevadhara, 197 (2003) pp.341-355.
98. “A concert of Charisms: The CMI Contribution to the Syro Malabar Tradition
and Indian Church,” Journal of St. Thomas Christians 2 (2003) pp.4-25.
99. “The Old Way of Facing the New Age,” Jeevadhara, 201 (2004), pp. 199- 206.
100.“Social Implications of Religion,” Jeevadhara, 23 (2004), pp.375-387.
101.“The Missionary Approach of St. Thomas Christians; Historical
Background,” Journal of St. Thomas Christians, 1 (2004) 7-25.
102.“John Henry Newman’s Idea of a University”, Jeevadhara, 209 (2005), pp.
452- 462.
103.“Relationships, The Focus of Modern Scientific Research and the World of
Moral Values,” Jeevadhara, 209 (2005), pp. 492-502.

V. Articles or Chapters on John Britto Chethimattam

1. Kadankavil, Thomas, “John Chethimattam CMI”, in Religions in Dialogue, East and West Meet, edited by Zacharias P. Thundy, Kuncheria Pathil, Frank Podgorski, Linham-New York-London: University Press America, 1985, pp. 1 – 21.
2. Wilfred, Felix, “John Britto Chethimattam”, in Beyond Settled Boundaries, Madras: University of Madras, Department of Christian Studies, 1993, pp. 121 – 128.
3. Mundadan, Mathias, “John Britto Chethimattam”, in Paths in Indian Theology, Bangalore: Dharmaram Publications, 1998, pp. 67 – 89.
4. Aykara, Thomas, “In Grateful Memory of Fr. John Britto Chethimattam CMI”, Jeevadhara, 213 (2006), 240 – 248.
5. Vallavanthara, Antony, “On Fr. Britto” (in Malayalam), Jeevadhara, 212 (2006), 144 – 151.

Friday, 8 January 2010

P.D. Devanandan (1901-1962)

The Concept of Maya (Calcutta: YMCA, 1954)
The Gospel and the Hindu Intellectual (Bangalore, CISRS, 1959)
Our Task Today: Revision of Evangelistic Concern (Bangalore: CISRS, 1959)
The Gospel and Renascent Hinduism (London: SCM, 1959)
Christian Concern in Hinduism (Bangalore: CISRS, 1961)
Preparation for Dialogue (Bangalore: CISRS, 1964).]

J.F. Pessein, SJ

Vedānta Vindicated. Tiruchirapally: St. Joseph Press,1925. [Reference in R. De Smet, "Sankara's Non-Dualism (Advaita-Vada)," Religious Hinduism, ed. J. Neuner and R. De Smet(Mumbai: St Pauls, 1997).] [JDV S10/P44 009880. Acquired photocopy.]

Klaus K. Klostermaier

Kristvidya: A Sketch of an Indian Christology. Bangalore: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society, 1967.

Manilal C. Parekh (1885-1967)

Dhanjibhai Fakirbhai (1895-1967)

Christopanishad. Indian Christian Thought Series no. 3. Bangalore: CISRS, 1965. 44 pp. UTC. [Baago 69.]
The Philosophy of Love. Delhi: ISPCK, 1966. 26 pp. GEN. [Baago 69.]
Hriday Gita. Surat, 1956. 127 pp. GUST. [Baago 79.]
Prematattva Darshan. Ahmedabad, 1963. 32 pp. GUST. [Baago 79.]
Prakatya 1966. Unpublished. 800 pp. Rev. R.H.S. Boyd, Ahmedabad. [Baago 80.]
Adhyatma Darshana. 1966. Unpublished. 70 pp. Rev. R.H.S. Boyd, Ahmedabad. [Baago 80.]
Shree Krist Geeta: Song of the Lord Christ. Delhi: ISPCK, 1969. Om Books.