Tuesday, 13 October 2009

Thomas Stephens: Asiatic Society, Mumbai, and XCHR, Porvorim

Yesterday I was in Fort, Mumbai, and took the chance to visit the Asiatic Society of Bombay (formerly the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Chapter) and the Public Library adjacent to it.

In both libraries I found A.K. Priolkar's, The Printing Press in India, with its English translation of J.H. da Cunha Rivara's History of the Konkani language. Unfortunately, and very disappointingly, Theophilus Lobo, who translated this essay from the original Portuguese, thought it fit not to reproduce the essay in its entirety. So while the Censures and Licences are mentioned, the complete texts of these - and J.L. Saldanha says he got these texts from da Cunha Rivara's essays - are not given. Which is a real pity. Now we will have to find the Portuguese original. Which I suppose should be either at the Heras Institute, St Xavier's College, Mumbai, or else at the Xavier Centre of Historical Research, Porvorim, or at the Central Library, Panjim.

The Public Library is very easy of access. I signed my name and address in the register at the entrance, and then went to look at the card catalogue. I found Priolkar's book, together with some others, which I should have taken down, but did not. I requested for the book, and had to wait a bit. It came after a while, and then I had to submit an Identity document, sign a request for photocopies, after which they simply handed over the book to me and said I could go out and get the copies done myself. Amazing.

The Asiatic Society was another thing. They were also very kind, but their rules are much stricter. One has to be either a member, or else take a day membership at the cost of Rs 75, if one is to look at a book / journal and make copies. So I accessed their card catalog, found the same Priolkar book, met the office, was directed to the Librarian, a very gracious lady called Dewanji Madam. Dewanji Madam was very helpful; through the clerks the book was found, and I had a look at it. (This was while I was waiting for the same book at the Public Library.) They have a limit of 25 pp copies per journal / book. I filled in a form, paid my Rs 75/-, and then the book was handed over to a peon who waited till he collected other photocopy requests, before going out to get the copies done. (I believe the inhouse machine is out of order.) All this took a while. But it was a learning experience. I found that one of the gentlemen in the office was a Catholic, called Donald. He told me life membership used to be Rs 3000; now it is Rs 15,000. He also told me that Mr Bernard Andrade, one of the clerks at the Shrine Office, was a life member. More interestingly, I asked Mrs Dewan about possible MS of the Khristapurana. I told her that Mr Jerome A. Saldanha had displayed one such MS way back in 1903 or so, and did they keep records of lectures at the Society? She said it was unlikely, but that there was a catalogue of MS, and I would have to apply to the Secretary for special permission to access that.

At any rate, I got 25 pp of the da Cunha Rivara text copied through the Asiatic Society, and the rest through the Public Library.

Da Cunha Rivara clearly states that he was unfortunate not to be able to see any of the printed editions of the KP; he said he saw only MS, but does not give any further information about these. From the mention of an MS indicating interpolations by Fr Pascoal Gomes da Faria, dated 1722, there arises the possibility that one of the MS he saw was related to the one at the Central Library, Panjim, which is clearly dated 1722, and is a copy of the 3rd edition of the KP (1654).

In the meantime, the Director of the Xavier Centre for Historical Research, Porvorim, replied to my e-mail query, saying that they do not possess any MS of the KP. He says that "some books of [Mariano] Saldanha's collection were donated to the XCHR".

Friday, 9 October 2009

Thomas Stephens, SJ (1549-1619), an updated bibliography

I have already published a Stephens bibliography on this blog, but here is a fresh one, which I think is far more accurate and updated. I have consulted the following, and have corrected their entries where necessary with the help of the internet.

I am still waiting for Nelson Falcao to supply a complete list of the MS of the Khristapurana - he says he has some 15 of them, including the one from the Central Library, Panjim.

S = Joseph L. Saldanha edition, 1907.
B = Bandelu edition, 1956
D = Drago edition, 1996.
M = Marsden MS
F 2003 = Falcao, Kristapurana: A Christian-Hindu Encounter
F 2009 = Falcao edition, Marathi, 2009
F 2012 = Falcao edition, English, 2012

Account of Thomas Pound and petition for him to be admitted in spite of his absence to the Society of Jesus.
“Stephens’s account is extant among the archives at Brussels and at Stonyhurst (Collectio Cardwelli, i.16; FOLEY, iii.580-4.” [Pollard 355.]

Letter to his father, dated 10 November 1579. [English.]
Full text in R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. 2nd Series, vol. 5. Glasgow, 1914. [S xxvi.]

Full text in J.L. Saldanha, “Biographical Note,” xxvi-xxx.
Letter to his brother, Richard Stephens, dated 24 October 1583. [Latin.]
Copy, with several omissions, in the National Library of Brussels. [S xxx.] See MS. 3353-61, f. 61r-63v. A description can be found in J. Van den Gheyn (Catalogue des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique), vol. VII, p. 6, n° 4571: belgica.kbr.be/nl/coll/ouvRef/ouvRefCatal_nl.html.

Full text [English translation], in J.L. Saldanha, “Biographical Note,” xxx-xxxiv. See also ibid. note 1: The writer in the Mangalore Magazine obtained a copy from the National Library of Brussels. The writer might be the Rev. D. Fernandes, SJ, mentioned in the Editor’s Preface, iii.]
Letter to Fr Claudius Aquaviva, General of the Society of Jesus, Rome; from Margao, dt. 6 December 1601. [Portuguese.]
Two unpublished letters of Stephens, his obituary notice and the Catalogues of the Goan Province. Roman Archives of the Society of Jesus. [Falcao 2003 213.]

Parisista 4: Bandelu 949-953.

Parisista 10: Drago 896-899.

Priolkar, A.K. “Two Recently Discovered Letters of Fr Thomas Stephens,” The Journal of the University of Bombay 25, part 2, 25 (September 1956) 114-123. [F 2003 222.]
Letter to Fr Claudius Aquaviva, General of the Society of Jesus, Rome; from Salsette, dt. 5 December 1608. [Portuguese.]
Two unpublished letters of Stephens, his obituary notice and the Catalogues of the Goan Province. Roman Archives of the Society of Jesus. [Falcao 2003 213.]

Parisista 5: Bandelu 953-956.

Parisista 11: Drago 900-902.

Priolkar, A.K. “Two Recently Discovered Letters of Fr Thomas Stephens,” The Journal of the University of Bombay 25, part 2, 25 (September 1956) 114-123. [F 2003 222.]
Doutrina Christã em lingua Bramana-Canarim, Ordenada a maniera de dialogo para ensinar os meninos, pelo Padre Thomas Estevão da Companhia de IESUS. natural de Lodres. Empressa no Collegio de Rachol da Companhia de IESUS. Anno 1622. 8vo. 4 unnumbered leaves. 64 leaves of text numbered on recto only. Biblioteca Nacional, Lisboa. Vatican Library, Rome. [C.R. Boxer 1956 9-10.]
According to S, this book was a translation into Konkani of a Christian Catechism in Portuguese by Padre Marcos Jorge. Published 3 years after death of Thomas Stephens. [S xxxvii.]
Doutrina Christã em lingua Concani. Ed. Mariano Saldanha. Lisboa, 1945. Reproduced in facsimile on pp. 55-190, with introduction, notes and appendices. [Archivum Historicum Societatis Iesu, XIV (1945) 168-169. C.R. Boxer 1956 9-10. Falcao 2003 213.]

Arte da lingua Canarim. Rachol: St Ignatius College, 1640.
Fr Diogo Ribeiro, SJ, is said to have added to the manuscript the fruits of his 50 years’ study of Indian languages. Printed only in 1640, after the demise of both authors, at the press of St Ignatius’ College, Rachol, with Imprimatur of the Provincial, Manoel Barradas, given with the consent of the Praepositus General of the Society, Fr Vitelleschi. Only 2 copies of the first edition are known to exist. [S xxxvii.]

Sir Monier Monier-Williams, “Facts of Indian Progress,” Contemporary Review, says he has seen an edition of this grammar in the India Office Library, but none of his other works. [S xxxvii, xxiv.]

Microfilm available at Mumbai Marathi Sansodhan Mandala, Mumbai 400 005. [D 905.]
Grammatica da Lingua Concani pelo Padre Thomaz Estevayo. Ed. J.H. da Cunha Rivara. Nova Goa: Imprensa Nacional. 1857.

Arte da lingoa Canarim composta pelo Padre Thomaz Estevao da Companhia de IESUS & acrecentada pello Padre Diogo Ribeiro da mesma Copanhia e nouemente reuista & emendada por outros quarto Padres da mesma Companhia. 1640. (Grammar of Konkani language composed by Fr Thomas Stephens of the Society of Jesus and enriched by Fr Diogo Ribeiro of the same Society and newly revised and corrected by four other priests of the same Society). A facsimile reprint of the 1640 edition with an introduction by Fr Ivo Coelho SDB. Margao (Goa): CinnamonTeal Publishing, 2012. 5-25.

Khristapurana: Versions and editions

Discurso sobre a vinda de Jesu-Christo Nosso Salvador ao mundo, dividido em dous Tratados, pelo Padre Thomaz Estevão, Inglez, da Companhia de Jesu. Impresso em Rachol com licencia da Santa Inquisicão, e Ordinario no Collegio de Todos os Santos da Companhia de Jesu Anno 1616. [S xxxix. First edition, Rachol [Raitur: D, F], Goa, 1616. [Roman script.]
The title with all its details is taken from the ‘Licence,’ which itself is found, not in the MS collated by S, but in J.H. da Cunha Rivara’s Introduction to his edition of Stephens, Arte da lingua Canarim, 1857. [S xli, note 2. See above for full details.] Imprimatur 22 June 1615. “From the Censures and Licences annexed it seems to have originally been written in Portuguese and then translated into the vernacular in which we now find it. The translation appears to have been completed in 1614 [S xxxix, note 1: see stanzas 119-120, Canto 59, Dussarem Puránna], and printed for the first time, in 1616, as declared in the descriptive title in Portuguese first given to the book.” [S xxxix.]

No copy has been traced to date.

See, however, Pollard 356 who speaks of a copy as extant in the Archivo Universal of the National Library at Lisbon.
Puranna. Second edition, 1649. [TS died 1619.] [Roman script.]

It would be important also to check where da Cunha Rivara obtained the 'Censures and Licences' which he reproduced in his "Ensaio Historico."
“A second edition, taken in hand in 1646 under the auspices of the aforementioned Fr[ei] Gaspar de S. Miguel, who, with some other ecclesiastics, completed a revision of the work on February 20, 1649, appears to have been published in the latter year under the title of the Puránna, in place of the original Portuguese designation borne by the first edition…. It is not known where the second edition was printed.” [S xxxix.] The Drago edition, however, indicates (see front matter) that it was printed at Raitur, Goa, 1649.

No copy has been traced to date.

See again Pollard 356 who speaks of a copy as extant in the Archivo Universal of the National Library at Lisbon. Also, check da Cunha Rivara, "Ensaio Historico."
Puránna. Em Goa com licenca da Santa Inquisicao e Ordinario no Collegio de S. Paolo novo de Companhia de Jesu. Anno de 1654. Third edition, Old Goa [according to Drago], 1654. [Roman script.]
Licences by Rev. Fr Lucas da Cruz and another, dt. 2 January 1653 and 22 June 1654.

No copy has been traced to date.

See again Pollard 356 who speaks of a copy as extant in the Archivo Universal of the National Library at Lisbon. Check da Cunha Rivara, "Ensaio Historico."
The Adi or First Puran + The Deva Puran. [Devanagari manuscripts.] Marsden Collection Manuscripts. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. N.d. [Falcao 2003, 213.]
The manuscripts had belonged to the library of William Marsden who, Abbot says, ‘a century ago’ had made a large collection of coins and Oriental books when in India, many of the latter having been obtained from the Archives in Goa (which Archives, Abbot does not say). The library was given by Marsden to the Kings College, London, in 1853, but in 1916 came into the possession of the School of Oriental Studies. The catalogue contained only a few Marathi items. Abbot reports two, with entries made by Mr Marsden as follows: “The Adi or First Puran, a Christian work in the Mahratta language and Nagari character appearing to contain an exposition of the Old Testament.” “The Deva Puran, or Divine History, a Christian work in the Mahratta language and Nagari character appearing to contain an exposition of the New Testament or History of Christ.” The manuscript is in two volumes differing in handwriting. The Deva Puran is a copy of an older copy. The MS end in the usual form of an Indian Puran, Iti Mahapurane, or Iti Deva-Purane, which the Mangalore text does not do. See “Mr. Justin E. Abbot’s Letter to ‘The Times of India’.” Parisista 3: B 946-949. See also J.E. Abbott, “The Discovery of the Original Devanagari Text of the Christian Purana of Thomas Stevens,” BSOS 2 (1921-23) 679-683. [Hambye 32.]

Abbott claims that this is a copy of Thomas Stephens’ original text. Bandelu feels that there is not enough evidence for Abbott’s claim. Falcao follows Abbott without really arguing his case. Strangely, while admitting that M is an MS and not an ‘edition,’ he still lists it as the 7th edition, coming after D, without giving any supporting reasons. [F 2003 20]

Fr H. Staffner obtained a microfilm of M and made 2 copies. One is in the Jaykar Library of the Pune University. The other is in Snehasadan, Pune. [D, “Abhara,” ix.] It would seem, however, that there is another microfilm of the same in the Mumbai Marathi Sansodhan Mandala, Mumbai, though D does not specify that this is M. [See D 905.] F 2003 follows D, but specifies that this microfilm is indeed of M. [F 2003 213.]
Discurso sobre a vinda de Jesus Christo Nosso Salvador ao Mundo. 1731. 88 leaves, illustrated. Copy of the 1654 edition by Manuel Salvador Rebello in 1767. Central Library, Panjim, Goa.
See Pia de Menezes Rodrigues, “La chronique documentaire e des médias: Research Libraries in Goa [colonial and postcolonial experiences],” Lusotopie 1999: Dynamique religieuses en lusophonie contemporaine, 478. See http://books.google.co.in. Not mentioned in Baago or F 2003.

Note: Da Cunha, The Konkani Language and Literature: Fr Pascoal Gomes da Faria added in 1722 some 237 strophes to the seven cantos from 45 to 51 of the second part. S says that there is no trace of these in the copies collated by him. [S xlii.]
[Manuscript.] Borrowed by S from Messrs. Dunbar Brothers of Parel, Bombay. [Presumably a copy in Roman script.] [S iii.]

[2 copies in a Kannada script rendering of the original Marathi. Library, St Joseph's Monastery, Carmel Hill, Bikarnakatte, Mangalore. Fr George Santhumayor reports that the copies were 'printed' at the beginning of the 20th century.]

[Manuscript.] Borrowed by S from Marian Saldanha, “an enthusiast of Puránnic literature.” [Presumably a copy in Roman script.] [S iii.]
Most probably this is the MS in possession of the Thomas Stephens Konknni Kendra, Alto Porvorim (their no. V 353). It bears the name "M.C. Saldanha" both on the spine, and in pencil on the first page. 
[Manuscript.] Borrowed by S from Julian Coelho. [Presumably a copy in Roman script.] [S iii.]

[Manuscript.] Borrowed by S from Rev. S.B.C. Luis. [Presumably a copy in Roman script.] [S iii.]

[Manuscript.] Borrowed by S from J.A. Saldanha, copy in Devanagari characters. [S iii.]
“The scheme of printing The Christian Puránna had its origin in a suggestion made by Mr. J.A. Saldanha, BA, LLB, Sub-Judge of Alibagh, Bombay Presidency, in his learned lecture on Fr Stephens’ work, delivered three years ago [i.e. c. 1904, presumably] in the Catholic Union Club, Mangalore. In order to obtain as many copies of the book as possible, as well as to evoke interest in the almost forgotten classic of the Konkan, he undertook a journey to Goa and along the western coast, appealing to the people at large by means of lectures such as the one ready by him before the members of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.” [S i.] “The Devanagari transliteration obtained in connexion with the present publication, through the kindness of Mr J.A. Saldanha, is, however, full of modern forms given in place of the old ones of the Romanized copies, and contains, besides, numerous errors. It seems to have drawn a good deal of attention at the late Centenary Celebration of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, at which it was exhibited at Mr Saldanha’s express desire.” [S xl, note 2.]
[Manuscript.] St Aloysius College, Mangalore.

[Copy, manuscript.] Collection of Bhaugun Kamat Vagh.
Copy in Goa University Library: see Bibliography of Dr Pandurang Sakharam Shennavi Pissurlencar Collections, vol. II (of 3), Goa University Series No. 3, ed. B.S. Shastry and V.R. Navelkar. Cited in S.M. Tadkodkar, Goan Christian Marathi Vilapika During the 17th Century (Delhi: B.R. Publishing Corporation, 2010) 118, note 8. Tadkodkar notes that this copy is from the 19th century, and that sometimes the strophe numbers do not coincide with any of the strophe numbers in other copies mentioned by him (i.e. mainly the Central Library Panjim copy). 
[Text.] Found in Arambol, Goa. Acquired by the Rachol Seminary, Rachol, Goa (according to Victor Ferrao, e-mail to me of 25 May 2011, this is a copy of J.L. Saldanha's 1907 edition.)

[Text.] Of J.L. Saldanha's 1907 edition. Gifted by Bishop Allwyn Barretto of Sindhudurg to Mr Suresh Gundu Amonkar, who is currently translating the Khristapurana into Konkani. He has since donated the MS to the GCL.

The Christian Puránna of Father Thomas Stephens of the Society of Jesus: A Work of the 17th Century: Reproduced from manuscript copies and edited with a biographical note, an introduction, an English synopsis of contents and vocabulary. [Roman script.] 4th edition, by Joseph L. Saldanha. Bolar, Mangalore: Simon Alvares, 1907. Pp. xci+597. XB. [Baago 2; Falcao 2003, 214.]
[J.L. Saldanha.] Editor’s Preface, i-v.
[J.L. Saldanha.] Contents, vii-xxii.
[J.L. Saldanha.] Biographical Note, xxiii-xxxviii.
[J.L. Saldanha.] Introduction, xxxix-lxxxv [39-85]
Censures and Licences, lxxxvii-lxxxix [87-89]
[Thomas Stephens.] Dedication, xc-xci [90-91]
[Thomas Stephens.] Bhauarthiyam christauam samastanssi Padri Thomas Estevam udandda ayuxe bhouxe va paramesuarachy crupa bhaquitaye. (Author’s Preface), xcii-xciv [92-94]
[Gaspar de S. Miguel.] In laudem auctoris pelo Frei Gaspar de S. Miguel, religioso do Patriarca S. Francisco, xcv [95]
[J.L. Saldanha.] Vocabulary.
Extracts from the Christian Purana. Ed. Canon Joshi. Bombay, 1912. [D 906. Falcao 2003 214.]

Khrista-janma, Tha. Stephens, Khristi Purana, Bhag 2, Avesvaru 7-8. [Devanagari.] Poona: Bishop of Poona [Dr Doring], 1933. [B 86.]

Khristace dukha va marana, Tha. Stephens, Khristi Purana, Bhag 2, Avesvaru 45-50. [Devanagari.] Poona: Bishop of Poona, 1934. [B 86.]

Khristace punarutthana va svargarohana, Tha. Stephens, Khristi Purana, Bhag 2, Avesvaru 52, 58, 59. [Devanagari.] Poona: Bishop of Poona, 1934. [B 86.]

Paile Purana (Pahila Avasvaru). Ed. J.S. Miranda. Santidut [Vasai] Year 1, anka 8 and 10 (June 1949). [Devanagari.] [Stephens’ Gadyaprastavana and the first adhyaya of the first purana. B 87. D 906.]

Khrista-janma. [Devanagari.] Ed. B.P. Hivale. Ahmednagar: Ahmednagar College. [B 2.]

Kristava Puranantli vincona: Mula Sloka ani Konkani Tarjumo Atapata. Ed. Zuava Zuze Rega and Feliz Pavala Norena. Experimental Print. [Kannada script.] Mangalore: St Aloysius College, 1952. [Falcao 2003 214.]
Contains the following selections: 1.1.1-16; 1.7.1-131; 1.10.1-56; 1.36.1-74; 2.7.58, 61-74; 2.46.141-163. [Falcao 2003 214.]
Phadara Stiphanskrta Khristapurana: Paile va Dusare. 5th edition, by Shantaram P. Bandelu. First [printed edition in] Devanagari script. [Falcao 2003, 20.] Poona: Prasad Prakashan, 1956. Pp. iv+(15)+(96)+1076. DNC, UTC. [Baago 2; Falcao 2003, 213. Bandelu knew about the M, but rejects Abbott’s claim about its being the original MS.]
Nivedana. 1-26.
Phadar Thomas Stephens yance caritra. 27-46.
Kristapuranantila kavyasoundarya. 47-51.
Kristapuranantila lipyantarapaddati. 51-59.
Kristapuranantila padyasvarupa. 59-61.
Kristapuranaci bhasa. 61-66.
[H. Staffner, tr. S.P. Bandelu.] Kristapuranaci dharmika sikvana. 67-84.
Adharbhuta grantha, niyatakalike, sanksepa ityadi. 84-88.
[Gaspar de S. Miguel.] Padri Gaspar de S. Miguel yance Stephens-stutipar kavya. 89-90.
[Thomas Stephens.] Pha. Stephens-likhita gadyaprastavana. 91-93.
[Thomas Stephens.] Parisista 1: Dedication. 941-943.
Parisista 2: Censures and Licences. 943-946.
[Justin E. Abbot.] Parisista 3: Mr. Justin E. Abbot’s Letter to ‘The Times of India.’ 946-949.
[Thomas Stephens.] Parisista 4: Fr. Stephens’ Letter to Rome (unpublished and originally written in Portuguese), 1601. 949-953.
[Thomas Stephens.] Parisista 5: Fr. Stephens’ Letter to Rome (unpublished and originally written in Portuguese), 1608. 953-956.
Father Stephens Anityachen Khristapurana. Bombay: Marathi Samshodhan Patrika, 1965. Bombay University Library. (Baago 2)

Kristapurana. 6th edition, by Caridade Drago, SJ. Second [printed edition in] Devanagari script. [Falcao 2003 20.] Pp. li+907. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan, 1996. [Falcao 2003 213.]
[Ramdas Bhatkal.] “Prakasakache nivedan.” [v-vii.]
[Drago.] Abhara. [ix.]
[Drago.] Prastavana. [xxi-xlvi]
1. Kristapurankara Phadar Thomas Stephens
2. Phadar Stephens yancya granthanca stula parichaya
3. Kristapuranacya nirmitci karanamimamsa
4. Kristapuranace granthakartrtva
5. Kristapuranaci dharmik sikvana
6. Kristapuranat aviskrt Yesu Khrista
7. Kristapuranat adalnare desikarana
8. Kristapuranace kavyasoundarya
9. Kristapuranaci bhasa
[Gaspar de S. Miguel.] Phadar Stephens yanci stuti. [xlvii-xlviii.]
[Thomas Stephens.] Phadar Stephens-likhit gadya prastavana. [xlix-li.]
Parisista [Appendices]:
1. Pathabhedanci suchi. 755.
2. Sabdarthakosa. 827.
3. Kristapuranatila kahi mahattvacya adhyatmika sanjnance katholika dharmamatanusara spastikarana. 851
4. Baibalcya junya va navya kararatila pustakanci nave ani anukrama. 857
5. Kristapuranatila vyaktisthulanamasuci. 860.
6. [S.G. Malshe.] Synopsis of the Thesis. 885.
7. [Thomas Stephens.] Dedication. (Phadara Stephens-likhit arpanapatrika.) [English translation taken from S.] 889.
8. Censures and Licences. (Kristapuranacya prakasanasathi tatkalina rajyakartyani dilele abhipraya va adhikarapatre.) [English translation taken from S.] 891
9. [J.E. Abbot.] Mr. Justin E. Abbot’s Letter to the ‘Times of India.’ 894.
10. [Thomas Stephens.] Fr. Stephens’ Letter to Rome, 1601. [From Margao, 6 December 1601, to Fr Claudius Aquaviva, General of the Society of Jesus, Rome.] 896-899.
11. [Thomas Stephens.] Fr. Stephens’ Letter to Rome, 1608. [From Salsette, 5 December 1608, to Claudius Aquaviva, General of the Society of Jesus, Rome.] 900.
12. Kristapuranacya Roman va Devanagari pratincya chhayaprati. 903-904.
13. Sandarbhasuchi. [Bibliography.] 905-907.
Phadara Thomas Stiphanskrta Khristapurana: Purana 1 va 2: Sudharita ani vistarita sampurna avrtti hastalikhita Marsden Marathi padya pratitila sloka, Marathi bhasantara; vistrta sandarbha, parisiste va granthasuchi. Ed. and tr. Nelson Falcao, SDB. Bangalore: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2009.

Father Thomas Stephens' Kristapurana: Purana I and II: Revised and Enlarged, Complete Edition; Handwritten Marsden copy from the British Library, London, Sanskritized-Marathi Biblical Epic; About Eleven Thousand Verses from Sanskritized-Marathi Poetry. Translated into English Prose; with Ample Notes, References, Introductions, Appendices and Bibliography. Ed. and tr. Nelson Falcao, SDB. Bengaluru: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2012. Pp. (1)+(94)+1708. ISBN: 978-81-87370-72-7. 

Khristapurana: Translations

Phadara Thomas Stiphanskrta Khristapurana: Purana 1 va 2: Sudharita ani vistarita sampurna avrtti hastalikhita Marsden Marathi padya pratitila sloka, Marathi bhasantara; vistrta sandarbha, parisiste va granthasuchi. Ed. and tr. Nelson Falcao, SDB. Bangalore: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2009.

Thomas Stephens. Birth and Childhood of Mother Mary, St John the Baptist and Jesus Christ in the Kristapurana of Father Thomas Stephens, S.J. Tr. and ed. Nelson Falcao. Bengaluru: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2014. 6+154 pp.

Thomas Stephens. Fadar Thomas Stiphanskrta Khristapuranatila pavitra Mariya, santa Yohana Baptista va Prabhu Yesu Khristaci janmakatha va balapana. Tr. and ed. Nelson Falcao. Bengaluru: Kristu Jyoti Publications, 2014. 6+154 pp.

Nelson Falcao. Fadar Thomas Stiphanskrta Khristapuranatila Prabhu Yesu Khristace duhkhasahana. DVD.

Nelson Falcao. Fadar Thomas Stiphanskrta Khristapuranatila Prabhu Yesu Khristace punarutthana. DVD.

Nelson Falcao. Fadar Thomas Stiphans Khristapurana. Tr. and ed. Nelson Falcao. DVD.

Secondary literature

  • Abbott, J.E. “The Discovery of the Original Devanagari Text of the Christian Purana of Thomas Stevens,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies [BSOS] 2 (1921-23) 679-683. [Hambye 32. B 6]
  • Abbot, J.E. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 3:159-164 (1923-25). [B 6.]
  • Abbot, J.E. Letter to Times of India, 17 August 1925. [B 6. Full text in B 946-948; D 894-895. None of the 3 Abbott pieces are mentioned in the Falcao 2003 bibliography, though the Letter is mentioned in F 2003 23 note 43.]
  • Andersen, Philip. The English in Western India: History of the Factory of Surat. Bombay, 1854. [S xxiv. F 2003 223.]
  • Anonymous. “An Immortal Work by an English Jesuit.” Letters and Notices 66 (November 1961) 325, 193-211. [F 2003 222.]
  • Anonymous. “Britisa Dharmagurune lihilele Marathi Mahakavya: Sadetina Satakapurvicya Ovyanci Bhassa Samisra, Apabhramsa Kami – Muktesvaracya Todice Kavyaguna, Pracina Marathicya Abhyasala Granthaci Madata.” Sakala (22 December 1957) 6. [F 2003 223.]
  • Anonymous. Lettere annue del Giappone China Goa et Ethiopia. Naples, 1621. See 112. [B 30.]
  • Baago, Kaj, ed. Library of Indian Christian Theology: A Bibliography. Madras; The Christian Literature Society for The Department of Research and Postgraduate Studies, United Theological College, Bangalore, 1969.
  • Bandelu, Shantaram P. “Stephenscya Christianpuranantila kahi soundaryasthale.” Ahmednagar College Quarterly (October 1952). [B 1.]
  • Bandelu, Shantaram P. Phadara Stiphans yanche jivancaritra ani vangmaya. Ahmednagar: Ahmednagar College Prakashan 1954. [B 1.]
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  • Quadra, Benedetta. Il P. Tommaso Stephens, S.I. e il suo Purana Cristiano. Rome: Università degli Studi di Roma, 1943. [Falcao 2003 215. Untraceable.]
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  • Saldanha, Joseph L. “Stephens, Thomas.” Catholic Encyclopedia 14:292.
  • Saldanha, Mariano. “A Literatura Puranica Christã, e os respectivos problemas linguisticas e bibliograficos.” Separata do Boletim do Instituto Vasco da Gama, [Bastora] no. 82 (1961). [F 2003 226.]
  • Saldanha, Mariano. “O Purana Christão do Padre Thomaz Estavam.” [M. Sardesai. A History of Konkani Literature: From 1500 to 1992. 98-100. M. Saldanha (1878-1975), born Uskoi (Ucassaim). Chair of Sanskrit, University of Lisbon, 1926.]
  • Schurhammer, Georg and Cotrell, G.W. “The First Printing in Indic Characters.” Harvard Library Bulletin 6/2 (Spring 1952) 147-160. [F 2003 229.]
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  • Singh, Brijraj. "The First Englishman in India: Thomas Stephens (1547-1619)." Journal of South Asian Literature 30/1-2 (1995) 146-161.
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  • Staffner, Hans. “Fr Stephens’ Christa Purana: Reflections on the Coming Devanagari Edition.” The Examiner 107/14 (7 April 1956) 177-178. [F 2003 222.]
  • Stewart, John. Nestorian Missionary Enterprise. Madras, 1928. [F 2003 226.]
  • Tavernier, J.B. Le Six Voyages de J. B. Tavernier. 2 vols. Paris, 1679. ET Travels in India. 2 vols. 2nd edition by V. Ball and William Crooke. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 2001, 2004. [B 85.]
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  • The Oliver Collection. University of London Library Depository at Royal Holloway. [Pollard 356.]
  • The Travels of Pietro della Valle in India. From the Old English Translation of 1664, by G. Havers. 2 vols. Edited, with a Life of the Author, an Introduction and Notes by Edward Grey.London, Hakluyt Society Publications, 1892. I:162ff. [Pollard 356.]
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  • Phādara Thomasa Stīphansa Gauravikā: Vasai-Vāstavyācyā caturśatābdīnimitta (1612-2012). Ed. Nazareth Misquitta. Vasai: Jeevan Darshan Kendra, [2012]. Contents: 
    • Amonkar, Suresh Gundu. “Khristapurāṇa: dhārmika samanvayāsāṭhī upayukta purāṇa-grantha. 14-26.
    • Ujgare, Anupama. “Khristapurāṇa ani Khristāyāna.” 27-36.
    • Patil, Subhash. “Khristī Marāṭhī Vāngmayācā ādyapuruṣa: Phādara Thomasa Sṭīphansa.” 37-45.
    • Falcao, Nelson. “Phādara Thomasa Sṭīphanskruta Khristapurāṇa.” 46-59.
    • Kale, Kalyan. “Ekūṇa sāt āvṛttyā.” 60-62.
    • D’Britto, Francis. “Bāybala āṇi Khristapurāṇa.” 63-69.
    • D’Silva, Gonsalo. “‘Khristapurāṇa’ āntardhārmīya susamvādācā apratima dhāgā.” 70-75.
    • Correa, Francis. “Phā. Sṭīphansa: Marāṭhi vyākaraṇāce ‘Pāṇinī’.” 76-82.
    • Agaskar, Rajan. “Khristapurāṇa: Kāḷācī garaja āṇi prabhāva.” 83-86.
    • Tuscano, Ephesine. “Aitihāsika pārśvabhūmivara Phā. Sṭīphana yānce jīvanakārya.” 87-92.
    • Velinkar, Joseph. “Contribution of Father Thomas Stephens.” 93-97.
    • Monteiro, Kevin. “Fr. Thomas Stephens: The Person.” 98-109.
    • D’Mello, Alexander. “Khristapurāṇkāra Phādara Sṭīphansa.” 110-112.
    • Pereira, Stephen. “Khristapurānātīla Pavitra Mariyā.” 113-116.
    • Rodrigues, Mary. “Khristapurāṇātīla Mariyecī svarūpe.” 117-123.
    • Lopes, Maxwell. “Khristapurāṇa: eka sanskrutī samanvaya.” 124-126.
    • Bhosle, Levin. “Phā. Thomasa Sṭīphansa likhita Khristapurāṇa.” 127-128.
    • Nunes, Magdalen. “Khristapurāṇa Phādara Thomasa Sṭīphansa.” 129-131.
    • D., V.L. “Eka alaukika va pratibhāvanta raciyeta.” 132-133.
    • Lopes, Pascal. “Khristapurāṇa: ekā dharmagurunce mahāna kārya.” 134-135.

Thursday, 8 October 2009

In search of the Khristapurana of Thomas Stephens

These days I have been going through the Saldanha, Bandelu, Drago and Falcao editions of Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana. The great question is: what was the original script of composition - Devanagari, as Falcao claims, or Roman, as Saldanha and Bandelu claim? The problem is that, of the first 3 printed editions, we have not as yet been able to trace a single copy.

Strangely, A.F. Pollard, in his article in the Dictionary of National Biography, claims that these editions are extant in the National Library (Archivo Universal), Lisbon.

Then again, Saldanha has given some indications of where he found the manuscripts that he collated for his edition: Messrs. Dunbar Brothers of Parel, Bombay; Marian Saldanha, Julian Coelho, the Rev. S.B.C. Luis, and J.A. Saldanha.

Of these, all were in Roman script except the last, which was in Devanagari script. He also says that J.A. Saldanha had exhibited this MS at the Royal Asiatic Society in Bombay, and that it had caused quite a stir. So which is this MS? What has happened to it? And what relation does it bear to the Marsden MS on which Falcao has based his edition?

Yet again: the famous 'Censures and Licences,' from which largely we get our information about the 3 editions of the Khristapurana, are to be found not in these MS but in J.H. da Cunha Rivara's Portuguese introduction, “O Ensaio Historico da Lingua Concani,” to the Grammatica da Lingua Concani pelo Padre Thomaz Estevayo (Nova Goa: Imprensa Nacional, 1857). Where did Cunha Rivara get them from? That would be interesting to find out.

At any rate, a first step has been taken today: inquiries among the Mangalorean Catholics of Nashik. Mr Hugh Mascarenhas told me that he would contact a cousin of his, a Mr Lobo, who, if I heard right, used to be editor of the famous Mangalore Magazine which J.L. Saldanha quotes in his Introduction to The Christian Puranna.

Another step would be to write articles in the popular magazines in Goa and Mangalore on the latest Falcao edition and solicit MS from people.

Yet another step would be to send a copy of the Falcao edition to the Bishops of Goa and Mangalore and request their help in getting MS.

Yet again: requesting Pratap Naik of the Thomas Stephens Konkkni Kendr at Porvorim for help. And perhaps also the Xavier Historical Institute next door to it.