Monday, 2 December 2013

Paremmakkal Thomma Kathanar


  • Varthamana Pusthakam. [Malayalam.] Kottayam: Oriental Institute of Relgious Studies in India Publ., 1989. [Cited in P.T. Mathew, "Faith-Culture Encounter in India: Insights from the Letters of Pedro Luis, the First Ever Indian Jesuit." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 77/11 (2013) 850.] 

Pedro Luis, SJ

Mathew, P.T. "Faith-Culture Encounter in India: Insights from the Letters of Pedro Luis, the First Ever Indian Jesuit." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 77/11 (2013) 837-851.

Sunday, 22 September 2013

Aleixo Manuel da Costa. Dicionario de Literatura Goesa (A-Z). Volume IV.

Aleixo Manuel da Costa. Dicionario de Literatura Goesa (A-Z). Volume IV. Fundacao Oriente / Broadway, 2013. Pp 162. Hb. Rs 350. ISBN 978-93-80837-56-7

From Frederick Noronha, [Goanet-News] Goanet Reader: The printed page from the Goa of another era (FN). Email of 22 Sep 2013.

          Three volumes of this book have come out earlier.
          In our times, the work is likely to be
          under-appreciated.  Mainly that is, because it is
          in a language most of us do not understand, and
          deals with a point in time almost all have forgotten.

Yet, this is a useful book. Published posthumously, its
author passed away in April 2000.  Only when one checks it
out closely, does its worth becomes apparent.

First some figures:

*  The author has made an impressive collection of some
   11,000 publications by Goans, written in a total of 14

* He has compiled the bibliographical and biographical data
  of over 2000 Goan writers, representing the period from
  1702 to 1961.

          Penha da Franca-born Aleixo da Costa joined the old
          Biblioteca Nacional Vasco da Gama (later the
          Central Library, and presently the Kishnadas Shama
          Central Library) in 1930.  He became the Curator in
          1949 and retired in 1967 at the age of 58.  His
          earlier three volumes were published back in 1997.
          Now, the fourth volume of his work has just reached
          the stands.  It's available at Broadway's and other

In the earlier volume, Costa covers the period of 1702 to
1950.  In this work, he touches on the years 1951 to 1961.
From A to X (even if Y and Z are absent, there being no
entries under these alphabets).  The work, I understand, was
put together by his son Amilcar Da Costa, based in Europe.

In this volume, Costa covers from ALA (the magazine of the
Liceu Nacional Afonso de Albuquerque) till Xavier, Camilo
(the maestro in Gregorian chant and composition of sacred
music, from Macasana in Salcete).  In between there are a
whole lot of others.

Costa's book meticulously collates the background details (in
a thumbnail, word sketch) of each writer from Goa.  It lists
his or her writings, whether books or major articles.  It
also lists details of some journals and periodicals of the

Being closer to our times, it's easier to appreciate the work
of more names in this fourth volume.  This is not to suggest
that the earlier volumes can be ignored; though, the problem
there is that these were published by Fundacao Oriente in
collaboration with a Macau-based institute.  So the books are
either difficult to come by in Goa, or costly.  Or both.

          There is an old-world charm about this book. It
          lists Jose Conceicao de Almeida, whom one realises
          is Dr.  J.C.  Almeida, the senior official whose
          tenure spanned both pre-1961 and post regimes.  We
          learn about Belmira de Batista Almeida, a teacher
          from Britona, who after Liberation left for
          Portugal.  In between the Seminary publications, we
          also find featured Joseph Barros, the Uganda-born
          poet and litterateur Alfredo F Braganca, and
          Caxinata G Sinai Cacodcar (using the old style
          Portuguese-influenced spellings).

One comes across the work of Dr Fernando Jorge Colaco, and a
souvenir of the Corjuem Union (published in Bombay) dating
back to 1955 when the Corjuem Union Building was inaugurated
there.  It was incidentally printed at the Cordailbail Press
in Mangalore -- sometimes one has to go far to access technology.

          One always wanted to know more about Antonio (or
          Anthony) da Costa, the Jesuit author of the earlier
          much quoted 'The Christianisation of the Goa
          Islands 1510-1567'.  Costa partly solves the puzzle
          by talking about his Siolim links, his studies at
          Shembaganur and the University of Madras, studies
          in Spain, Rome, Poona, and his being the Director
          of the Heras Institute from 1967 to 1973.  So we
          have some context about the author.  Of course, one
          still needs to know more, and there's scope for a
          history of the book and the authors of Goa.

Covering times when the priests were usually the most
educated persons around, one comes across references to a
number of them.  But then there are radicals too, like the
Lourenco Marques (Maputo)-born Orlando da Costa, whose works
on Goa are yet to be appreciated in Goa itself.

The work of authors such as Janardana Upendra Naique Counto
of Priol (b 1903) gets remembered, as does the contribution
by prominent presses of those days -- such as Tipografia
Rangel in Bastora.  This listing made me want to read some of
the texts which we now forget.  For instance Filinto Cristo
Dias' 'A Short History of Indo-Portuguese Literature' (1984)
and another on Portuguese vocables of Konkani origin (1976).

One didn't realise that the 1932-born Agostinho Fernandes
(author of the inadequately discussed Portuguese novel
'Bodki') was actually a cardiologist with a link to Quepem.
Or that Jess Menino Fernandes' Nirmonn Part I and Part II
were published so far back!

          Authors like J.A. Fernandes of Chorao remind us of
          the times and their different linguistic
          influences, through the title of their work,
          rendered by Costa as 'Album Xembor Tiss Cantarancho
          Livro amcheam Podano.  Ugdass dovortam Ghoddnarancho'.

Definitely names like Antonio Furtunato de Figueiredo
(Maestro, and director of the earlier influential Academia de
Musica) are well remembered by old timers and some of the
younger generation, but others with a less known recall-value
also have long lists of publications behind them too.

Without books like these, we are likely to all but forget
'Free Goa', the fortnightly edited for awhile by Tristao
Braganca Cunha, and published from 172, Camp, Belgaum.  Or
the noted poet Joseph Vernon Furtado (son of Philip Furtado),
who was getting published by Macmillan & Co, Calcutta in the

There are other names worth noting, people who deserve a
tribute, titles which offer the unexpected, and works which
should not lie unread.

Doctor-freedom fighter Pundalica Gaitonde gets listed for his
work, as does Narana Sinai Coissoro, advocate and deputy in
the Portuguese national assembly.  One wonders if copies of
the Azad Gomantak Dal booklet on the 'Goan Freedom Struggle
at a Glance' published in 1957 are still available anywhere
at all to refer to today, and ditto for the 1955 souvenir of
the Goan Institute, Nairobi, released on its 50th anniversary.

(Talking about the rarity of local print material, a friend
just mentioned he might need to get a Goa-authored book all
the way from a library in London!)

Francisco Xavier Filomeno da Conceicao Gomes Catao --
everyone had longer names then -- gets noted for his
contributions in history, while Dr Esmina Gomes (wife of the
late Dr JF Martins) comes in with a technical paper.

          Jacome Gonsalves (a tribute from Divar); In
          Memoriam: Dada Vaidya; the Loiola Furtados (Leonor
          and Raul); Marcha da Fontainhas; Marcha da Santa
          Cruz; maestro Micael Martins, are names which would
          surely ring a bell to many who have not forgotten
          our past.  We learn about Antonio Estanislau de
          Melo, originally from Saligao, who played a giant
          role in the world of Indian sports in the 20th
          century (including in building the Brabourne Stadium).

Paulo Miranda, the scientist, is listed. So are the noted
editor Frank (Robert) Morais and his son Dom(nic Francis)
Morais.  Dr Pacheco de Figueiredo of the Escola Medica, and
others like the scholar whose art evoked protests Dr Jose
Pereira are prolific with their output as reflected in this

Given the hit-or-miss nature of such work, it's a thankless
job.  One can never be sure that all the works you intended
to have been covered.

For instance, one can find only three publications in the
name of the prominent archivist Panduronga Sacaram Sinai
(PSS) Pissurlencar, which seems too few.  But then the
tiatr-linked Lucasinho Ribeiro (described as a 'dramaturgo'
in Portuguese) also features here.  So do others like the
1894-born Rajaram Pundolica Sinai Quelcar (a doctor from
Priol), Mons.  Altino Ribeiro de Santana, and that prolific
Prof Lucio Rodrigues (whose talk on Konkani song at a US
university is available on the online archive).

          One also gets a chance to encounter the titans of
          another generation, such as Leopoldo Francisco de
          Rocha, whose study on the confrarias of Goa keeps
          getting cited.  Take a look at the work of Vassanta
          Porobo Tamba, Manohar Sinai Usgaoncar and Mons.
          Furtunato Viega Coutinho, though for the period
          under review.

There's Carmo da Silva, Judite Beatriz Lobo de Sousa, and
even Francisco Newton de Sousa (or, FN Souza, as we would
know him).  In words, the famed artist's contributions
include 'Nirvana of a Maggot', 'Words and Lines' and 'The
White Flag Revolution'.

Given the Goan reality, and our tendency to put down each
other, it's quite possible that this tome could be criticised
at a view 'of the past, from the past, and by the past'.
That too, in a language we've quickly forgotten or virtually
lost, and focussing on a time when the best educated were
priests, who then also dominated the process of creating
ideas.  Be that as it may, such a text is valuable, because
it goes against the current tendency of dismissing the past
as irrelevant to our present, which is a rather ahistorical
position to say the least.  Likewise, it makes up to some
small extent for decades of neglect of the Goan written word
in Portuguese.

All in all, a useful peep into the past. Definitely worth
picking up a copy at Rs 350 (in Goa).

Monday, 12 August 2013

De Smet items in libraries in Mumbai

A fruitful if tiring day in South Mumbai.

First a visit to the Heras Institute at St Xavier's College. Indica has rejected my article on the Panjim Central Library MS of the Khristapurana, saying it is far too sketchy for their readership, which is not as specialized as I had imagined it to be. I also took the chance to search for some articles of De Smet's, chiefly from Indian Antiquary, 3rd series. However, it turned out that Heras does not have the volumes I needed.

Then a visit to the University of Bombay Periodicals Library. This turned out to be very fruitful, and I came away with at least 4 items of De Smet's: two from Indian Antiquary (3rd series), one from the Journal of the University of Poona, and one from the Journal of the American Oriental Society.

Since I had time on my hands, I also visited Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, off Chowpatty, in search of The Voice of Ahinsa. This was disappointing: they did not have it. They referred me to the nearby Jain Vidyalaya, but I was not able to find it, also because I was hoping to get back in good time to the University Library to pick up my photocopies, which I did, and that part went painlessly.

Update, 14 August 2013: I finally found a trace of The Voice of Ahinsa on the net. However, the De Smet articles I am searching for are not uploaded. This morning one of the editors of the website wrote back, saying that copies of the periodical are very rare, but that he would check with some libraries in Berlin and get back to me. Here is his email:

Hello Ivo,

your e-mail was forwarded to me by the editors of Jaina website, because I reissued the mentioned essays from 'The Voice of
Ahinsa' on their website.

'The Voice of Ahinsa' is a hard to find publication. In my own collection
I have several issues from the 1930's to 1940's - but unfortunately not
the numbers you are searching. But as far as I know there are some volumes
of 'The Voice of Ahinsa' are preserved in the library of Freie
Universitaet Berlin or in Berlin State Library. I will advise one of my
assistants to check this and send you further details soon.

Best wishes

(Patrick Krueger,

Tuesday, 6 August 2013

Other acquisitions by the GCL

The Krishnadas Shama GCL has also acquired a copy of the Flos Sanctorum, and, I think, of the Jardin des Pastores

The Pilar MS of the Khristapurana in GCL

The Krishnadas Shama Goa Central Library, Patto, Panjim, has acquired a scan of the Pilar MS of Thomas Stephens' Khristapurana. They also naturally have a printout for consultation. I am glad this step has been taken: it was needed, since the Pilar MS was falling to pieces. 

Sunday, 28 April 2013

Ignatius Hirudayam, SJ (19??-1995)



Friday, 26 April 2013

Vandana Mataji (Gool Dhalla) (1921-2013)

  • "A Messenger of Light: Swami Abhishiktananda as known in Shivananda Ashram, Rishikesh." Clergy Monthly 38/12 (1974) 496-500.
  • "Why so few Contemplatives?" Clergy Monthly 42/3 (1978) 135-136.
  • "Hosea the Prophet of Jnan Bhakti." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 44/1 (1980) 21-36.
  • "The Indian Face of Christ." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 49/1 (1985) 46-47.
  • "A Way to World Peace - as India sees it." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 56/7 (1992) 337-346.
  • "Learning the Art of Interfaith Dialogue with Muslims." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 56/12 (1992) 659-660.
  • "The Yoga of Witness." Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 57/10 (1993) 607-634.
  • [Editor.] Indian Spirituality in Action. Bombay: Asian Trading Corporation, 1975.
  • Shabda, Shakti, Sangam. Ed. Vandana Mataji. Rishikesh: Jeevan-Dhara Sadhana Kutir, 1995. 
  • Nama Japa: The Prayer of the Name. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1997.
  • Living with Hindus. Delhi: IJA and ISPCK, 1999.
  • "Japa-Sadhana." Pray without Ceasing: The Way of the Invocation in World Religions. Ed. Patrick Laude. Bloomington: World Wisdom Inc., 2006. 153-154.
  • [Editor.] Swami Abhishiktananda: The Man and His Message. Delhi: ISPCK, 1993.
  • Gurus, Ashrams and Christians. London: Darton, 1978.
  • Jesus the Christ. Anand: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, 1987.
  • John, P.R. "A Tribute to Vandana Mataji (1921-2013): Om Saccidanandaya Namah! Om Namah Ishaya!" Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 77/4 (2103) 308-311. 
  • The Mystic Heart., p. 36.

Saturday, 16 March 2013

Understanding Sankara: Essays by Richard De Smet

Understanding Sankara: Essays by Richard De Smet, edited Ivo Coelho (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2013) is just out of the press. Price Rs 800. A few copies are available with me at a special price. 


Preface                                                                                                       xi

Introduction                                                                                              1
1.      Early Position                                                                              1                                                            1                                                                                                                                      
2.      Rejection of the Māyāvāda Interpretation                              9
3.      Causality and Creation                                                            15
4.      The Mature Interpretation of the Final Years                      17
5.      Conclusion                                                                                   21


1. Language and Knowledge of the Absolute according
to Śaṅkara                                                                                               32
1.      Introduction                                                                               32
2.      The Semantic Polyvalence of Words                                     37
3.      The Meaning of Propositions (vākyārtha)                           42
4.      The Apophatism of Theological Language                           45
5.      The Rules of Recourse to the Implied Sense (lakṣyārtha) 48
6.      The Mental Operation Characteristic of Implication          50
7.      The Exegesis of the Vedāntic Identifications of the Absolute              51
8.      The Exegesis of the Vedāntic Definitions (lakṣaṇa) of
the Absolute                                                                              57
9.      Conclusion                                                                                68

2. The Fundamental Antinomy of Śrī Śaṅkarācārya’s
Methodology                                                                                           75

3. Śaṅkara’s Non-Dualism (Advaitavāda) (1964/68)                                         83
1.      The Current Interpretation of Śaṅkara’s Teaching              84              
2.      Śaṅkara’s Key-Distinction between Primary and
Secondary                                                                                  85
3.      Its Systematic Application                                                                          86
3.1.       The primacy of true knowledge                                  86
3.2.       The primacy of Śruti                                                     86
3.3.       The primacy of transcendental experience               88
3.4.       The primacy of monastic renunciation                                          88
3.5.       The primacy of jñāna-kāṇḍa                                                          89
3.6.       The primacy of the indicative assertions in
            jñāna-kāṇḍa                                                                  89
3.7.       The primacy of the propositions indicating
           Brahman                                                                          90
3.8.       The primacy of the ‘great sayings’                             91
3.9.       The primacy of the svarūpa-lakṣaṇas                                           91
3.10.    The primacy of the highest meaning (paramārtha) 92
4.      Appraisal                                                                                   93

4. Theological Method and Vedānta                                                  99

5. The Logical Structure of ‘Tattvamasi’ according to
Sureśvara’s Naiṣkarmya Siddhi                                                        111

6. Māyā or Ajñāna? A Textual Analysis                                         122

7. Questioning Vedānta                                                                      129

8. Chinks in the Armour of Avidyā                                                   139

9. Contemplation in Śaṅkara and Rāmānuja                                147
1.      Contemplation in Śaṅkara                                                    147
1.1.    The nature of contemplation                                       147
1.2.    The role of divine grace                                               150
1.3.    The goal of contemplation                                           152
2.      Contemplation in Rāmānuja                                                 153
2.1.    The nature of contemplation                                       153
2.2.    The role of grace and love in contemplation            155
2.3.    The goal of contemplation                                           156

10. Spiritual Values of Advaita Vedānta and Social Life            158
1.      Difference between vidyā and a-vidyā, Vidyā and a-Vidyā 159
2.      The Linguistic Cribwork of Śaṅkara’s Writings                162
3.      The Meaning of Tattvamasi and Unreciprocal
Identity (Tādātmya)                                                               164
4.      Conclusion                                                                              169

11. Forward Steps in Śaṅkara Research                                        173
  1. Śaṅkara: Strictly an Interpreter of the Jñāna-Kāṇḍa
of the Śruti                                                                              174
2.      A Quest for Supreme Values                                                178
3.      An Intercrossing of Three Levels of Language                  186
4.      The Intellectual Dynamism of Srī Śaṅkarācārya               188

12. The Buddha, Meister Eckhart and Śaṅkarācārya                       on ‘Nothing’       191
  1. The Negativism of Siddhārtha Gautama Śākya
(muni), the Buddha                                                                191
1.1.    A possible reconstruction of the sambodhi              191
1.2.    The neg-ontology of the Buddha                                196
2.      The Apophatism of Meister Eckhart                                   198
2.1.    The objects of Eckhart’s negativism                          200
3.      The Negativism of Srī Śaṅkarācārya                                   202
3.1.    The linguistic cribwork of Śaṅkara’s writing           202
3.2.    The tādātmya relationship                                           204
4.      Conclusion                                                                              205

13. Radhakrishnan’s Interpretation of Śaṅkara                          208

14. Radhakrishnan’s Second Presentation of                             Śaṅkara’s Teaching   229
1.      Gauḍapāda and Śaṅkara                                                        230
2.      The Sources of Śaṅkara’s Doctrine                                     231
3.      The Role of Ignorance in Brahmajijñāsā                           232
4.      The Role of the Great Sayings (Mahāvākyas)                   233
5.      The Status of the World                                                        236
6.      The Individual Soul                                                               240
7.      Mokṣa or Liberation                                                              242
8.      Conclusion                                                                              243

15. The Creative Word in Śāṅkara Vedānta                                 245
1.      Śaṅkara and the Wishing Word of the All-Maker             246
2.      The All-Maker as Providing Reality to its Effects            248
3.      The Causality of the Creative Word                                    250
4.      Conclusion                                                                              252
Appendix on the Egyptian Tradition about the
Creative Word                                                                        253

16. Śaṅkara’s Perspective on Meaning and Truth                       255
1.      Śaṅkara’s Hermeneutical Situation                                     256
2.      Meaning and Truth                                                                 262
3.      Consequences of Śaṅkara’s Interpretation of the Śruti   267
3.1.    Appropriation of this interpretation                           267
3.2.    A turning-point for the Vedānta school                     268
4.      Conclusion                                                                              268

17. The Presuppositions of Jaimini and the Vedāntins                271
1.      Jaimini                                                                                     271
1.1     The pre-Jaimini metamorphoses of the Veda           271
1.2    Jaimini and the authorless Śruti                                 274
1.3    The intrusion of para-textual factors in Mīmāṃsā  275
2.      The Vedāntins’ Diverse Conceptions of Vākya
(Sentence) as Responsible for their Diverse
Interpretations of the Same Scriptures                                276
               2.1    Introduction                                                                   276
               2.2    Śaṅkara                                                                           276
               2.3    Rāmānuja                                                                        280
               2.4    Madhva                                                                           283
               2.5    Vallabha                                                                         283
3.      Conclusion                                                                              284

18. The Dynamics of Contemplation according to        Śaṅkarācārya          285
1.      The Desire to Intuit the Divine Essence                             285
2.      The Starting-Point of the Quest: the Upaniṣads                286
3.      The First Two Steps: Śravaṇa and Manana                       287
4.      From Jñāna to Vijñāna                                                          289
5.      The Third Step: Dhyānam, the Assimilative
Contemplation                                                                        290
6.      The Role of Divine Grace                                                     292

19. From the Vedas to Radhakrishnan                                           295
1.      The Testimonial Method of Śaṅkarācārya (śrutivāda)    295
2.      Other Explorations in the Field of Philosophical
Hinduism                                                                                 298
3.      The Notion of Person                                                             299
4.      The Christian Side in Philosophico-Religious Dialogue  300
5.      Conclusion                                                                              300

20. Śaṅkara’s Non-Dualism (Advaitavāda) (1997)                                             305
1.      The Current Interpretation of Śaṅkara’s Teaching           306
2.      Śaṅkara’s Teaching in his Authentic Writings                  307
2.1.    Śaṅkara’s hermeneutical predispositions                 308
2.2.    His conception of the sentence                                   311
2.3.    His conception of intellection                                     311
2.4.    His interpretation of the five types of definition  
of Brahman                                                                    312
3.      Conclusion                                                                              320


21. The Correct Interpretation of the Definitions of the Absolute according to Śrī Śaṅkarācārya and Saint Thomas Aquinas                   326

22. Śaṅkara and Aquinas on Liberation (Mukti)                          335
1.      The Desire for Liberation                                                     335
2.      The Conditions of Liberation                                               338
3.      The Effects of Liberation                                                      343
4.      Conclusion                                                                              344

23. Śaṅkara and Aquinas on Creation                                            345
1.      The Cause of the Universe                                                    345
2.      Creation according to Aquinas                                            346
3.      Creation according to Śaṅkara                                             349

24. Advaitavāda and Christianity                                                                           354

25. Robert de Nobili and Vedānta                                                                          359

26. Origin: Creation and Emanation                                               369
1.      The Notion of Origin                                                             369
2.      The Need for Lakṣaṇā or Analogy                                       370
3.      Application to the Notion of Creation                                371
4.      The Step of Purification through Negations (Apavāda)   372
4.1.    No independent pre-existence of the created           372
4.2.    No pre-existence of the matter or of the forms of the created     373
4.3.    No need of instruments or demiurge                          374
4.4.    No need of a temporal beginning of creation           375
4.5.    The end of creation implies no need or desire
in the creator                                                                  376
4.6.    As participated being, the creature is non-Being     377
4.7.    Creative activity is not additive to the divine
Essence                                                                           378
5.      The Positive and Adequate Definition of Creation           379

27. Śāṅkara Vedānta and Christian Theology                              383
1.      The Fulfilment Theorists                                                       383
2.      The Creative Assimilationists                                              386
3.      The Apophatists                                                                     390
4.      Christians in Dialogue with Advaitins                                393
5.      Conclusion                                                                              395

28. From Catholic Theology to Śāṅkara Vedānta and
Return with Fr F.X. Clooney                                                             398
1.      Clooney’s Approach to Comparative Theology                399
2.      Turning to Advaita                                                                 399
3.      The Texture of the Advaita Vedānta Text                          401
4.      Moving towards Post-Textual Truths                                  403
5.      In Defence of Advaita                                                           405
6.      Qualifying for Advaita                                                          406
7.      Towards a Retrieval of Catholic Theology after
Advaita                                                                                    408
8.      Conclusion                                                                              411


29. Review of Mario Piantelli, Śaṅkara e la rinascità del  Brāhmanesimo    414

30. Review of Paul Hacker, Kleine Schriften                                 422

31. Review of Wilhelm Halbfass, Indien und Europa:
Perspektiven ihrer Geistigen Begegnung                                         431

32. Review of Wilhelm Halbfass, Studies in Kumārila
and Śaṅkara                                                                                          437

33. Review of Doctrine de la non-dualité (advaita-vāda) et
Christianisme                                                                                        442

34. Notice of Som Raj Gupta, The Word Speaks to the
Faustian Man                                                                                        446

35. Review of Jose Thachil, The Upaniṣads: A Socio-Religious Approach    448

36. Review of Srinivasa Rao, Advaita: A Critical Investigation 451


1. Upadhyay’s Interpretation of Śaṅkara                                      454

2. A Note about Śaṅkara’s Doctrine of Creation                         463

3. Parallel Arguments for the Existence of God in Aquinas
and Śaṅkara                                                                                          485

Bibliography                                                                                         490

Index                                                                                                       501